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The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Revised Edition
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“In The Inner Citadel, Hadot applies to Marcus Aurelius' Meditations his characteristic interpretive approach: treating ancient philosophy as a 'way of life,' in particular one which provides its students with 'spiritual exercises' to enable them to make progress towards wisdom, and treating ancient philosophical texts with attention to the 'forms of discourse,' or constraints of genre, tradition, and audience that affected their production...The Inner Citadel is a rich and substantial book and will certainly affect future scholarship on Marcus Aurelius.”―Rachana Kemtekur, Bryn Mawr Classical Review
“Hadot probes Marcus Aurelius's guidelines and convictions and discerns the until now unperceived conceptual system that grounds them. Abundantly quoting the Meditations to illustrate his analysis, he allows Marcus Aurelius to speak directly to us. Hadot unfolds for us the general philosophical context of the Meditations, commenting on the philosophers Marcus Aurelius read and giving special attention to the teachings of Epictetus, whom Marcus followed closely...Hadot's study offers a fresh picture of the fascinating philosopher-emperor, a fuller understanding of theories and doctrines of Stoicism, and rich insight on the culture of the Roman empire in the second century. Hadot has been working on Marcus Aurelius for more than twenty years; in this book he distills his analysis and conclusions with extraordinary lucidity for the general reader and specialist.”―Word Trade
“Plato used to talk of philosopher-kings; Marcus Aurelius was something even better: He was a philosopher-emperor. The leader of the Roman Empire spent most of his life in troubling times, campaigning against the barbarians, dealing with conspiracy at home, even combatting an upstart cult that revered one of those Galilean wonder-workers. Yet the most powerful man in the world still managed to live the life of a Stoic, and to record his reflections on how we should live. Those meditations, as these inner pep talks are usually called, became one of the best-loved books of antiquity...This study--by a leading authority on Marcus--provides background matter and analysis of the main themes in the Meditations, as well as fresh translations of many of the sayings.”―Washington Post Book World
“Because both translator and author are contemporaries, discussions between them contributed to an excellent and faithful translation....[Hadot argues] that The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius must be understood primarily as a 'philosophical' work not in the sense of speculative philosophy, but as philosophy that represents a way of life in the tradition of the Stoics...This is an excellent study of the Meditations.”―P. A. Streveler, Choice
“The power and vigour of Hadot’s interpretation derive partly from his belief in the importance and continuing value of Stoic philosophy at least broadly interpreted in terms of a stoic outlook on life… In this book, as in his work as a whole, he sets a demanding standard, and an example which we can all applaud.”―R. B. Rutherford, Classical Review
“Pierre Hadot, Professeur Honoraire of the College de France, aims in The Inner Citadel to discover what the emperor wanted to accomplish by writing [the Meditations] The book he has written (published in French in 1992) achieves these aims superbly while also offering a broad introduction to the intellectual world of the second century Through his analysis of the Meditations, Hadot exposes to our view the mind of those who ruled the Roman world at the height of its prosperity.”―Kenneth D. Bratt, Calvin Theological Journal
About the Author
Pierre Hadot was Professor Emeritus at the Collège de France. His books include Philosophy as a Way of Life and Plotinus.
- Item Weight : 1.02 pounds
- Paperback : 368 pages
- ISBN-13 : 978-0674007079
- ISBN-10 : 0674007077
- Dimensions : 6.25 x 0.75 x 9.25 inches
- Publisher : Harvard University Press; Revised edition (December 28, 2001)
- Language: : English
- Best Sellers Rank: #155,095 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
- Customer Reviews:
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Hadot also takes the time to outline the development of Stoic philosophy, tracing the teacher/student relation through a few generations. He makes a point to explain to the reader the circumstances in which Meditations was written, why it was written, and for whom it was written. All of these are important aspects to consider when one wants to understand the books more fully. Hadot also takes the time to give examples of how this ancient school of thought can be implemented in the modern world (although that is not the point of this book, as there are others which focus on that topic more exclusively.)
If you have any interest in understanding Meditations, or any interest in Stoic philosophy, then this book is a must read.
Hadot's believes that the Meditations were not simply notes Marcus wrote to himself but rather a series of cognitive techniques practiced by many Stoics. He calls them "Imaginative Exercises." For example, there is the practice of "turning an obstacle upside down." Suppose you are helping someone (a virtue) and they make that difficult by being surly or unwilling to cooperate: patience and understanding. With this logic, there is rarely an excuse to ever find yourself at a philosophical impasse and is the epitome of Stoicism's adaptability.
Rather than think of Meditations as little bits of wisdom that Marcus jotted down, Hadot says, we should think of them a personal study of the tenets of Stoicism. Marcus is practicing what he has been taught as opposed to doing the teaching himself. This is a new interpretation as most other biographers have gotten caught up in comparing Marcus's actions and his words - analyzing whether or not he was a hypocrite, a drug addict, a warrior or an enfeebled emperor.
In Hadot's book we not only get a deep understanding of Marcus but we can see the love the author has for his subject. Hadot, through his discussion of Marcus, manages to also give the reader one of the best books on Epictetus and Seneca. His original translations of all three authors are welcome additions to the canon for the group. In short, if you liked Meditations or are researching the great Marcus Aurelius, this book is THE book on the topic. Starting anywhere else would be a waste of time.
Top reviews from other countries
The author opens with a very valuable discussion on the history of the so-called "Meditations" and how it may have originated and what purpose it may have served, and closes with an analysis about what we may learn of the character of Marcus via his writings. Those looking for a straightforward commentary on the "Meditations" may not find quite what they are looking for here, but it's a valuable work going deeper into the background and context of Marcus' writings and indeed a very good work on Stoicism in general.
Very well documented, scientific work.
Deep dive into the thinking of Stoicism and Marcus Aurelius.
The book shows us parallels between the roots of our Western Culture and Buddhism.
With some chewing the book is stuffed with great insights and quotes.
What could have been better:
Lacks consistency in the use of words, labels, ... which creates unnecessary confusion while reading.
The message of the book could have been made more easy with the same effect