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Mechanical gears are used in power transmission and include a wide variety of applications. They may be used to change the direction of power or to change the ratio of rotation between shafts. Industrial gears were originally straight-cut but today come in a range of types, such as worm, spur, bevel, helical, change, and miter gears. Depending on the load requirements and the environment in which they are used, they may be made out of a variety of materials, such as with nylon, steel, cast iron, and brass gears. They may be cast, sintered, extruded, or forged as a blank and then machined and ground to achieve the finished product. Replacement gears are generally specified by the number of teeth and the bore of the keyed shaft. Other specifications include the gear width and tooth angle. Ratio is determined by the comparative number of teeth. Applications are generally compact because the cogs must engage. Power transmission over greater distances is generally performed using pulleys and belts. Where the torque requirements are substantial, cogged pulleys and belts are used. Mechanical gears are also used in hydraulic pumps to move fluid under pressure. Such rotary pumps may be manually operated or driven by electric or gas motors.