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More Money Than God: Hedge Funds and the Making of a New Elite Hardcover – June 10, 2010
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I set out to write the history of hedge funds for two reasons. Explaining the most secretive subculture of our economy posed an irresistible investigative challenge; and the common view of hedge funds seemed ripe for correction. Hedge funds were generally regarded as the least stable part of the financial system. Yet they managed risk better than banks, investment banks, insurers, and so on—and they did so without a safety net from taxpayers.
Four years on, the book is done; and both my original motivations have been vindicated. Unearthing the story of hedge funds has been pure fun: From the left-wing anti-Nazi activist , A. W. Jones, to the irrepressible cryptographer, Jim Simons, the story of hedge funds is packed full of larger than life characters. Getting my hands on internal documents from George Soros’s Quantum Fund; visiting Paul Tudor Jones and reading the eureka emails he wrote in the middle of the night; poring over the entire set of monthly letters that the Julian Robertson wrote during the twenty year life of his Tiger fund; interviewing Stan Druckenmiller, Louis Bacon, and hundreds of other industry participants: my research has yielded a wealth of investment insights, as well as an understanding of why governments frequently collide markets. Meanwhile, the financial crisis of 2007-2009 vindicated my hypothesis that hedge funds are the good guys in finance. They came through the turmoil relatively unscathed, and never took a cent of taxpayers’ money.
Since the book has come out, many readers have posed the skeptical question: Do hedge funds really make money systematically? The answer is an emphatic yes; and without giving the whole book away, I can point to a couple of reasons why hedge funds do outsmart the supposedly efficient market.
First, hedge funds often trade against people who are buying or selling for some reason other than profit. In the currency markets, for example, hedge funders such as Bruce Kovner might trade against a central bank that is buying its own currency because it has a political mandate to prop it up. In the credit markets, likewise, a hedge fund such as Farallon might trade against pension funds whose rules require them to sell bonds of companies in bankruptcy. It’s not surprising that hedge funds beat the market when they trade against governments and buy bonds from forced sellers.
Second, the hedge-fund structure makes people compete harder. There is an incentive to manage the downside: hedge-fund managers have their own money in their funds, so they lose personally if they take losses. There is an incentive to seek out the upside: hedge-fund managers keep a fifth of their funds’ profits. This combination explains why hedge funds were up in 2007, when most other investors were losing their shirts; it explains why they were down in 2008 by only half as much as the S&P 500 index. People sometimes suggest that hedge funds survived the subprime bubble by fluke—perhaps their ranks include wacky misfits who are naturally contrarian. But there is more to it than that. John Paulson poured $2 million in the research that gave him the conviction to bet against the bubble. The hedge-fund structure created the incentive to make that investment.
Financial risk is not going away. Currencies and interest rates will rise and fall; there will be difficult decisions about how to allocated scarce capital in a sophisticated and specialized economy. The question is who will manage this risk without demanding a taxpayer backstop. The answer is hiding in plain sight: To a surprising and unrecognized degree, the future of finance lies in the history of hedge funds.--Sebastian Mallaby (Photo of Sebastian Mallaby © Julia Ewan)
From Publishers Weekly
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Top Customer Reviews
Hedge funds are defined by four characteristics: they stay under the radar screen of regulatory authorities; they charge a performance fee; they are partially isolated from general market swings; and they use leverage to take short and long positions on markets. Most importantly, in a financial system riddled with conflicts of interests and skewed incentives, hedge funds get their incentives right. As a result, according to Mallaby, they do not wage any systemic threat to the financial system, and they may even provide part of the solution to our post-crisis predicament.
The first set of well-aligned incentives deals with the issue of ownership. Hedge fund managers mostly have their own money in their funds, so they are speculating with capital that is at least partly their own--a powerful incentive to avoid losses. By contrast, bank traders generally face fewer such restraints: they are simply risking other people's money.Read more ›
The reader is introduced to various legends of the industry like George Soros and Stan Druckenmiller as well as to Julian Robertson (Tiger), Paul Tudor Jones, the Commodities Corporation, Citadel, Jim Simons and others, as well as also to some hedge-fund implosions of Long Term Capital Management, Amaranth, etc. and to the bankruptcy of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers. Also some short sellers like Jim Chanos and David Einhorn are mentioned. Of course, there are many top guys missing, and the words SAC (Cohen) and ESL (Lampert) or Blackstone are only in the text without any details, ... and there's no mention whatsoever of Cerberus, BlackRock, Icahn, Apollo, etc.
One thing I didn't like in the book, was that quite some time was spent on George Soros, probably due to the author's background, ... but at least Soros wasn't portrayed as the hero/savior he holds himself so often out to be, but instead the author also shows the reality of the very dark side of Soros and it makes you dislike the guy even more.
But the book is an essential book and an absolute "MUST" read for every trader and money manager, and for everyone working at a hedge fund.Read more ›
This gets more irritating when you consider the sympathy, even vicarious anguish, that Mallaby feels for billionaires he likes when they lose a billion or two. Their prior winnings are evidence of their status as superlative beings, but their subsequent misfortunes are heart-wrenching tragedies. It's probably why narrative journalism and investing are especially bad together: in financial markets, every loss is somebody's win, but if the winner is in the room, it's joyful.
Mallaby often "steps back" from the narrative to describe what lesson the reader is supposed to have learned from what has just "happened." Nearly always, this lesson is spectacularly wrong. For example, Mallaby describes the manner in which the Quantum Fund (led by Druckenmiller and Soros) shorted the UK pound in 1992, thereby wrecking the ERM, then, in 1997, squashed the Thai economy--the entire economy--like an unsuspecting kitten.Read more ›
Most Recent Customer Reviews
Most of these are puff pieces... The writer in this case is biased toward hedge funds as an investment vehicle but he does a good job of analyzing the model.Published 20 days ago by gabriel
A great book to learn about hedge fund history and financial market history.Published 1 month ago by Martin Lozano
The book can be a bit dry at times... but it's a book about hedge funds. You'll never look at the markets the same... Read morePublished 2 months ago by Douglas Funk
I will be the first to admit that the Stock Market and investment banking goes way over my head, especially when we are talking about portfolio management. Read morePublished 2 months ago by Delta Stet
Excellent book! I am to money what oil is to water, so this book helped me tremendously to understand Hedge Funds and the workings of big money investment.Published 2 months ago by GPL
Good story and very well presented. But you know what? They can have all that money and the grief that goes with it. Read morePublished 2 months ago by zzrose
This book is amazing, I would give it 5 stars but the book is missing pages 365-374..Published 3 months ago by Amazon Customer
One of the most well-written and extensively researched trading books I've had the pleasure of reading. Read morePublished 5 months ago by Ben Morgan
I really needed a book that summarised different investing approaches by world renowned figures and this book did it - perhaps even better than Michael Lewis's Liars Poker. Read morePublished 6 months ago by CHARLES MCDONALD