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Outliers: The Story of Success Paperback – June 7, 2011
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Amazon Best of the Month, November 2008: Now that he's gotten us talking about the viral life of ideas and the power of gut reactions, Malcolm Gladwell poses a more provocative question in Outliers: why do some people succeed, living remarkably productive and impactful lives, while so many more never reach their potential? Challenging our cherished belief of the "self-made man," he makes the democratic assertion that superstars don't arise out of nowhere, propelled by genius and talent: "they are invariably the beneficiaries of hidden advantages and extraordinary opportunities and cultural legacies that allow them to learn and work hard and make sense of the world in ways others cannot." Examining the lives of outliers from Mozart to Bill Gates, he builds a convincing case for how successful people rise on a tide of advantages, "some deserved, some not, some earned, some just plain lucky."
Outliers can be enjoyed for its bits of trivia, like why most pro hockey players were born in January, how many hours of practice it takes to master a skill, why the descendents of Jewish immigrant garment workers became the most powerful lawyers in New York, how a pilots' culture impacts their crash record, how a centuries-old culture of rice farming helps Asian kids master math. But there's more to it than that. Throughout all of these examples--and in more that delve into the social benefits of lighter skin color, and the reasons for school achievement gaps--Gladwell invites conversations about the complex ways privilege manifests in our culture. He leaves us pondering the gifts of our own history, and how the world could benefit if more of our kids were granted the opportunities to fulfill their remarkable potential. --Mari Malcolm
From Publishers Weekly
SignatureReviewed by Leslie ChangIn Outliers, Gladwell (The Tipping Point) once again proves masterful in a genre he essentially pioneered—the book that illuminates secret patterns behind everyday phenomena. His gift for spotting an intriguing mystery, luring the reader in, then gradually revealing his lessons in lucid prose, is on vivid display. Outliers begins with a provocative look at why certain five-year-old boys enjoy an advantage in ice hockey, and how these advantages accumulate over time. We learn what Bill Gates, the Beatles and Mozart had in common: along with talent and ambition, each enjoyed an unusual opportunity to intensively cultivate a skill that allowed them to rise above their peers. A detailed investigation of the unique culture and skills of Eastern European Jewish immigrants persuasively explains their rise in 20th-century New York, first in the garment trade and then in the legal profession. Through case studies ranging from Canadian junior hockey champions to the robber barons of the Gilded Age, from Asian math whizzes to software entrepreneurs to the rise of his own family in Jamaica, Gladwell tears down the myth of individual merit to explore how culture, circumstance, timing, birth and luck account for success—and how historical legacies can hold others back despite ample individual gifts. Even as we know how many of these stories end, Gladwell restores the suspense and serendipity to these narratives that make them fresh and surprising.One hazard of this genre is glibness. In seeking to understand why Asian children score higher on math tests, Gladwell explores the persistence and painstaking labor required to cultivate rice as it has been done in East Asia for thousands of years; though fascinating in its details, the study does not prove that a rice-growing heritage explains math prowess, as Gladwell asserts. Another pitfall is the urge to state the obvious: No one, Gladwell concludes in a chapter comparing a high-IQ failure named Chris Langan with the brilliantly successful J. Robert Oppenheimer, not rock stars, not professional athletes, not software billionaires and not even geniuses—ever makes it alone. But who in this day and age believes that a high intelligence quotient in itself promises success? In structuring his book against that assumption, Gladwell has set up a decidedly flimsy straw man. In the end it is the seemingly airtight nature of Gladwell's arguments that works against him. His conclusions are built almost exclusively on the findings of others—sociologists, psychologists, economists, historians—yet he rarely delves into the methodology behind those studies. And he is free to cherry-pick those cases that best illustrate his points; one is always left wondering about the data he evaluated and rejected because it did not support his argument, or perhaps contradicted it altogether. Real life is seldom as neat as it appears in a Malcolm Gladwell book. (Nov.)Leslie T. Chang is the author of Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China (Spiegel & Grau).
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The book also talks about how very specific events such as the birth date cut off for admission into hockey leagues, like a butterfly's wings flapping, has long lasting effects on people's destinies and trajectories. There is the anomaly that professional hockey players tend to be all born early in the year, in January and February and not at the end of the year. Likewise, many of the great billionaires of both this gilded age and the previous one in the early nineteenth century were born nearly at the same year reflecting the fact that they just were at the right moment for the cutoff to take advantage of certain opportunities. One comes away from the book feeling not that it is inevitable that men of Bill Gates' and Steve Jobs' stature would naturally become titans of the computer industry but rather that they reflected special contingencies. One wonders how applicable the logic is to the new generation -- i.e. Larry Page and Mark Zuckerberg . Do they benefit the same way?
The book also describes "young genius programs" such as that developed by Terman at Stanford, ostensibly based purely on innate abilities, and how "relatively" unsuccessful these people were in real life, being in a sense surpassed by those taking better advantage of their context.
Finally, the book tackles an exceptional population. It analyzes the amazing proficiency of Asians for mathematics, looking at how this may relate to their cultural proclivity for hard work through rice farming and also some aspects of their language, which deals with numbers in a much more uniform way than the irregular forms of English.
Overall a great read that gives one an exceptional view of the exceptional.
It reminded me of a comment Warren Buffett made at a lecture I saw him give in the Spring of 2000. He talked about how his wealth came from being lucky enough to be born at a time and place when his skills and abilities were valued. He said that had he been born 10,000 years earlier, he would not have survived because his skill set is not conducive for the life of a nomadic hunter-gatherer.
The key point to take away from this book is "Outliers are those who have been given opportunities-and who have had the strength and presence of mind to seize them". This is something I have known about my own life; that certain lucky breaks and fortuitous random encounters with new people has led to many of my own personal and professional accomplishments.
This book really hit the spot with me. I read it at a time when I had just moved cities and was about to start a business in a city I wasn't familiar with. I applied the 10000hr rule straight away and although I am yet to become a genius at my business, I'm sure as hell damn good at what I do right now. As with books of this nature, I couldn't finish it in one go because there was so much to stop and reflect on. But to this day, I refer to it all the time and I recommend this book to anyone and everyone.