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The Performance of Emotion among Paxtun Women: "The Misfortunes Which Have Befallen Me"
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But Benedicte Grima, as a female anthropologist and folklorist, was allowed access to the world of female Paxtuns, which had received far less attention than the more public male sphere. She argues that men and women have different ways of carrying out the paxtunwali, especially in terms of badal. Women consider it to be keeping badal when they visit one another in order to inquire about events that have recently taken place, as well as when they give each other gifts. Badal should therefore be understood more in terms of general reciprocity in social relationships, rather than just as blood feuds.
It is on these visits of inquiry that most of Grima?s ethnography focuses. She uses Dell Hymes? model of the ethnography of communication to focus on a speech event called tapos, which literally means ?to inquire? to Paxtun men, but is defined by women as making a personal visit to the female head of a household to ask about an illness or other misfortune. During each of these visits, there is a performance of a woman-to-woman speech genre. The women share stories of the misfortunes of their families in great detail, while following a sort of genre formula.Read more ›