- Hardcover: 358 pages
- Publisher: Lexington Books (June 5, 2010)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0739146866
- ISBN-13: 978-0739146866
- Product Dimensions: 6.4 x 1.1 x 9.4 inches
- Shipping Weight: 1.5 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars See all reviews (2 customer reviews)
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #3,884,319 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Pharmakon: Plato, Drug Culture, and Identity in Ancient Athens
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Beginning from the most thorough review of classical intoxicants, Rinella applies his findings in detail to many Platonic texts. His results certainly have great significance for students of Plato, but also for the history of medicine and of classical civilization generally. It is a truly impressive accomplishment. (Anthony Preus, Binghamton University)
Rinella's discussion of the nature and prevalence of drugs in the Classical Age of Athens is an essential context for a major theme in the Platonic dialogues and provides a valuable background for any student of the great philosopher's works. As Rinella astutely demonstrates, Plato appears to have been the first to address the problem of drug induced ecstasy as dangerous to the well-ordered functioning of society, leading to potentially criminal behavior and non-rational modes of thought, and the philosopher's solution to the problem as the 'noble lie' still survives in our current drug policy. (Carl A. P. Ruck, Boston University)
There is serious scholarship across a range of disciplines, which demands that this be considered a contribution both to history and to studies of society. There is of course a political agenda, an agenda supported with reference to such figures as Derrida and Foucault, but it is muted and mostly kept well in the background. Certain features of Athenian society make this contribution especially welcome. The Greek symposium is currently receiving considerable attention, an institution where wine, itself rich in other intoxicating impurities, was employed to the point of loss of control...He helps us to look at Plato in a fresh new way, even though such perspectives can only capture part of the picture. Few will think that the pleas for a more relaxed attitude to recreational drug use depend on the clarity of his case on every point along his journey. And here too some will feel more relaxed about his conclusions than others. But as with Plato, the text is supposed to be a catalyst to debate, not the final word. (The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs)
[T]his is a vitally important pharmacography. Not only does it shed light on today's 'drugs problem' via the very roots of Western literary and philosophic thought, it does not do the disservice of assumption to the ancient Greeks, and boldy addresses them on their own terms. It is a treasure trove of investigations that, no doubt, will help cast new light on an a multitude of concerns surrounding the human use of that great ambiguity - the drug/pharmakon. (Psychedelic Press UK)
Michael Rinella's Pharmakon: Plato, Drug Culture, and Identity in Ancient Athens . . . .draws upon an impressively diverse array of sources, from literary and historical texts to pottery and other fragments of material culture to recent studies in molecular archaeology. . . .Overall [the book] advances a provocative set of claims [providing] a helpful introduction to the core sources that represent early drug culture. Rinella's treatment of these sources shows how very different discourses were afoot than those so prevalent today. (New Political Science)
From the Back Cover
Pharmakon: Plato, Drug Culture, and Identity in Ancient Athens examines the emerging concern for controlling states of psychological ecstasy in the history of western thought, focusing on ancient Greece (c. 750 - 146 BCE), particularly the Classical Period (c. 500 - 336 BCE) and especially the dialogues of the Athenian philosopher Plato (427 - 347 BCE).
Employing a diverse array of materials ranging from literature, philosophy, medicine, botany, pharmacology, religion, magic, and law, Pharmakon fundamentally reframes the conceptual context of how we read and interpret Plato's dialogues. Michael A. Rinella demonstrates how the power and truth claims of philosophy, repeatedly likened to a pharmakon, opposes itself to the cultural authority of a host of other occupations in ancient Greek society who derived their powers from, or likened their authority to, some pharmakon. These included Dionysian and Eleusinian religion, physicians and other healers, magicians and other magic workers, poets, sophists, rhetoricians, as well as others.
Accessible to the general reader, yet challenging to the specialist, Pharmakon is a comprehensive examination of the place of drugs in ancient thought that will compel the reader to understand Plato in a new way.
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Top Customer Reviews
The book is too substantial; it's daunting to review, but reviews are needed, such as describing what each chapter covers and what is significant and surprising that Rinella brings to light in each chapter. Certainly, this book more than earns its place within any entheogen history collection. It will be much-cited by other books in this area.
Entheogen scholars are discovering that visionary plants are the origin of religion. There has been a cover-up, censorship, and misrepresentation of drugs, and of the nature and origin of religion -- suppressing the drug-origin of religion, and the place of visionary drug-plants in Western antiquity. This book reveals aspects of how different the truth is from the current official story of where religion has come from. Rinella reveals how various positions and conflicts between drugs and politics played out in antiquity.
The official story is crumbling and the truth of the matter is being revealed, helped greatly by this book, which had to fight its way through the publication process and which provides one model of how to meet the unreasonably high bar for quality of scholarship, to make it past the forces of censorship that maintain the current total bias and misrepresentation of the nature of religion and the central place of drug-plants in Western cultural history.
One must wonder how many other good manuscripts have been suppressed, and how much other solid scholarship has been blocked and thwarted by the official culture and its systems of approving knowledge. Multiple grad students have told me of their plight: they know there is a gold mine of paradigm-changing evidence that is well past-due to be explored formally and published, and research in entheogen history would benefit tremendously from being supported within the academic system, but for reasons of cultural politics, is not supported, but is vehemently suppressed. "I want to study this area in grad school. But there's an extreme bias against even mentioning these ideas, against even turning our attention in this direction, of even proposing to look and see what evidence exists."
It is as if the official culture realizes that if we permit our attention to be turned in this impermissible direction, the current conception of both religion and drugs (and Philosophy, and culture...) is certainly doomed to be straightaway revealed as resting on an entirely false "mythology of origin". It's as if the grad students propose to their committees that we put aside the adherence to the reigning pretence, stop burying our heads in the sand, stop denying the existence of this subject, and actually investigate and put forth this suppressed and forbidden matter into public view.
This situation is somewhat similar to sex research in the early 20th Century, and is actually quite closely related to the recent situation with the subject of Western Esotericism, which was taboo and was instantly dismissed out-of-hand, as being inherently unacceptable as a topic of academic historical research, until recently. The entire idea of "the role of drugs in our religious history" is altogether culturally taboo; the very idea is not permissible to think, mention, or countenance, according to official culture. So Rinella's book is a major drug-politics victory, that has helped to clear the way to start to make it permissible to ask the question, for the first time, "To what extent were drugs used in our religious and cultural origins?"