- Hardcover: 517 pages
- Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition (February 28, 2007)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 156022150X
- ISBN-13: 978-1560221500
- Product Dimensions: 6.2 x 1.5 x 8.8 inches
- Shipping Weight: 2.2 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 1 customer review
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #10,751,849 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Plant Biotechnology in Ornamental Horticulture 1st Edition
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"Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress"
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"A THOROUGH REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH, which employs genetic engineering strategies and biotechnology for ornamental crop improvement. . . . -- Alan G. Smith, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
A THOROUGH REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH, which employs genetic engineering strategies and biotechnology for ornamental crop improvement. . . . Of interest to any researcher involved in improving horticultural crops, such as gene introduction and increasing resistance to pests and environmental stress. -- Alan G. Smith, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN
AN EXTRAORDINARY COLLECTION. . . . Each chapter is WELL WRITTEN by a world authority on the subject matter. The editors have done an excellent job keeping a tight focus on each subject. -- Michael E. Horn, PhD, Director, Cell & Molecular Biology, Phyton Biotech Inc.
Although many books have been published dealing with plant biotechnology and transgenic plants, the ones that focus on ornamental plants are rare. This book FILLS THE GAP, and should be A VERY USEFUL REFERENCE FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS, FACULTY, AND INDUSTRY SCIENTISTS working in and outside the field. -- Dr. Rongda Qu, Associate Professor, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University
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In this book, which could be considered a literature survey, the authors of the articles discuss many of these developments. The interested reader is expected to have a strong background in the molecular biology of plants, but even those not expert in this area, such as this reviewer, can read most of the articles without too much difficulty. A few of the authors recognize that the genetic engineering of ornamental horticulture is still in its infancy, but they also look forward to the day when the techniques, or others similar to them, will be applied on such a scale as to make them cost effective and accessible to both the amateur and professional horticulturist. Genetic engineering can be thought of as a collection of strategies that alter the metabolism and phenotypes of plant species. The reader will encounter many of these strategies in this book, and it is very engaging reading.
One such strategy concerns the problem of proliferation of non-native plants, and the use of genetic engineering to induce fertility in these plants in order to stop or retard this proliferation. Part of this discussion concerns the tapetal-specific transcriptional activity of the tobacco TA29 gene and the Rnase (barnase) from the bacterium Bacillus anyloliquefaciens. The targeted expression of barnase by the TA29 gene promoter destroys the tapetal cells, which inhibits pollen formation and thus produces pollen-free parent (male sterility). But the authors do not discuss how to restore the fertility by use of the `barstar', which is a specific inhibitor of barnase. The restorer gene is made up of the coding region controlled by the TA29 gene promoter. The expression of barstar in the male parent does not effect the tapetal development, and the plants can thus produce pollen (male fertility). If a male-sterile plant of the female parent is crossed with a male-fertile plant of the male parent, the resulting F1 hybrid contains both genes and expresses both of them. The tapetal development will be normal and the resulting hybrid will be completely fertile. This raises the exciting possibility of performing this type of genetic engineering for all plants that reproduce sexually. Invasiveness of non-native species could thus be controlled, and even entire geographical areas could be tuned to allow only certain species to reproduce, while forbidding others.
Along these same lines the authors discuss the expression of the STIG1-barnase fusion gene in tobacco, which suppresses the stigmatic secretory zone and produces female sterility and the FBP7 gene promoter, which controls expression of barnase gene in tobacco and produces transgenic plants with no ovules or seeds. Some other strategies for inducing fertility concern the manipulation of chalcone synthase gene expression, which causes the disruption of flavonoid biosynthesis and induces male sterility; the inhibition of expression of an ethylene-forming enzyme in a pistil, which causes the disruption of ovule development and induces female sterility; the overexpression of CKX1 gene in transgenic maize, which causes male sterility; the manipulation of homeotic genes, which alters reproductive organ development, and most controversial of late the expression of a lethal gene along with the chemically inducible Cre gene in seeds, which results in seeds incapable of germination (this is the Terminator technology, which has been widely discussed in the press).
Another very interesting discussion in the book concerns the biotechnology of flowering, with particular attention paid to the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome of this plant was the first to be sequenced, and a full understanding of its metabolome and proteome is promised by 2010. It is not surprising therefore to find it discussed in this book, and the authors devote some space to the `ABC model' that describes the specification of floral organs. As expected, mutations that result in the reduction, alteration, or placement of the floral organs are used to identify the genes responsible for development of the floral organs. There are four such genes: AP2, AG, PI, and AP3, the misspecification of which alters floral organ types. The ABC model refers to the three concentric fields of genetic activity, with the activity of AP2 for A in whorls 1 and 2, the activity of PI/AP3 for B in whorls 2 and 3, and AG for C in whorls 3 and 4. As the author remarks, the ABC model has been refined to take into account the discovery of `MADS' genes that are involved in defining the petal, stamen, and carpel domain (the so-called MADS box is a highly conserved DNA binding domain reflecting the belief that the flowering genes belong to an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors). The author discusses the cloning of the flowering-time gene from A. thaliana into the genome of the ornamental species Osteospermum ecklonis in order to change the onset time for flowering.