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Sociology Hardcover – August, 2000

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About the Author

John J. Macionis (pronounced ma-SHOW nis) was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He received his bachelor's degree from Cornell University and his doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. His publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education. He and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the companion volume to this text, Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis has also authored Society: The Basics, the leading brief text in the field, and he collaborates on international editions of the texts: Sociology: Canadian Edition (with Linda M. Gerber, from Prentice Hall Canada), Society: The Basics, Canadian Edition (with Cecelia Benoit and Mikael Jansson, also from Prentice Hall Canada), and Sociology: A Global Introduction (with Ken Plummer, published by Prentice Hall Europe). Sociology is also available in various international and foreign language editions. In addition, Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Prentice Hall). Macionis's most recent new text is Social Problems (Prentice Hall), which is the first text to take a social-constructionist approach to the study of social problems and public policy. The latest on all the Macionis textbooks, as well as news, information, and dozens of Internet links of interest to students and faculty in sociology, can be found at the author's personal Web site, http://www.macionis.com or http://www.TheSociologyPage.com. Additional information, as well as online study guides for the texts, is available at the Prentice Hall site, http://www.prenhall.com/macionis John Macionis is Professor and Prentice Hall Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. During a career of almost twenty-five years at Kenyon, he has chaired the Anthropology-Sociology Department, directed the college's multidisciplinary program in humane studies, and presided over the campus senate and also the college's faculty. In 1998, the North Central Sociological Association named Macionis recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contribution to Teaching, citing his work with textbooks and his pioneering use of new technology in sociology. Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. In the fall of 1994, he directed the global education course for the University of Pittsburgh's Semester at Sea program, teaching 400 students on a floating campus that visited twelve countries as it circled the globe. Macionis writes, "I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know so little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First and foremost, I am a teacher-a passion for teaching animates everything I do." At Kenyon, Macionis offers a wide range of upper-level courses, but his favorite course is Introduction to Sociology, which he schedules every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and each term invites his students to enjoy a home-cooked meal. The Macionis family-John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney-live on a farm in rural Ohio. Their home serves as a popular bed and breakfast where they enjoy visiting with old friends and making new ones. In his free time, John enjoys bicycling through the Ohio countryside, swimming, sailing, and playing oldies rock and roll on his guitar. He is currently learning to play

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

The final manuscript of this book was just about complete when the tragic events of September 11, 2001, took place. Rarely does the news of one day so change everyone's lives. There is little doubt that terrorism will leave its mark on life in the United States and elsewhere for years to come as our concern for security prompts us to reexamine so many dimensions of our everyday lives.

More generally, these events force us to confront the question of what kind of world we live in and what kind of world we want for ourselves and for our children. It is here that readers of this book will discover the importance of the discipline of sociology.

The daily e-mail I receive from students in the United States and around the world stands as testimony to the power of sociology to help people understand their world and, often, to transform people. Indeed, the material in this text was recently used in a presentation to the U.S. Supreme Court (Falvo v. Owasso Ind. School District, 2001). All instructors know well the deep satisfaction that comes from making a difference in the lives of our students. There is no greater reward for our work, and, in my case, no better reason for striving for ever-better revisions of Sociology, which, along with the briefer Society: The Basics, stands out as the discipline's most popular text.

I hope you will find Sociology to be authoritative, comprehensive, stimulating, and-as so many students testify-plain fun to read. In addition to the book, every new copy of Sociology, Ninth Edition, comes with a second learning tool, a CD-ROM that provides a number of short video selections that illustrate major concepts, ideas, and theories. Included on the CDROM is a series of "author's tip" videos-one for each chapter-that focuses on key chapter themes. Finally, the third part of the learning package that is available free with each new book is access to a full-featured Web site at http://www.prenhall.com/macionis From the main page, simply click on the cover of the text and select a chapter; you will find chapter summaries, learning objectives, suggested essay questions and paper topics, and multiple-choice and true-false questions prepared by the author of the text. As the student completes these tests, the server immediately grades them and points out exactly where the student needs more study. Also at this Web site, faculty will find a full complement of teaching resources, including Power Point slides for download and the Prentice Hall syllabus manager system that allows an instructor to post a course syllabus to the Internet without having to learn hypertext markup language (HTML).

Textbook, CD-ROM, and Web site: A three-part, multimedia package that is the foundation for sound learning in this new information age. We invite you to examine all three!


Part I of the textbook and the CD-ROM introduces the foundations of sociology. Underlying the discipline is the sociological perspective-the focus of Chapter 1, which explains how this invigorating point of view brings the world to life in a new and instructive way. Chapter 2 spotlights sociological investigation, or the "doing of sociology" This chapter explains the scientific, interpretive, and critical orientations of the discipline, and illustrates major research strategies with actual, well-known sociological work.

Part II surveys the foundations of social life. Chapter 3 focuses on the central concept of culture, emphasizing the cultural diversity that makes up our society and our world. The focus of Chapter 4 is the concept of society, presenting four time-honored models for understanding the structure and dynamics of social organization. This unique chapter provides introductory students with the background to understand the ideas of important thinkers-including Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim, as well as Gerhard Lenski-that appear in subsequent chapters. Chapter 5 turns to socialization, exploring how we gain our humanity as we learn to participate in society. Chapter 6 provides a micro-level look at the patterns of social interaction that make up our everyday lives. Chapter 7 offers full-chapter coverage of groups and organizations, explaining the importance of group life and investigating how and why large organizations have come to dominate our way of life. Chapter 8 explains how the operation of society generates both deviance and conformity, and also surveys the operation of the criminal justice system. Chapter 9 explains the social foundations of human sexuality. This chapter surveys sexual patterns in the United States and also explores variations in sexual practices through history and around the world today.

Part III offers unparalleled discussion of social inequality, beginning with three chapters on social stratification. Chapter 10 introduces major concepts and presents theoretical explanations of social inequality. This chapter richly illustrates historical changes in stratification and how patterns of inequality vary in today's world. Chapter 11 surveys social inequality in the United States, confronting common perceptions of inequality and assessing how well they square with research findings. Chapter 12 extends the analysis with a look at global stratification, revealing the disparities in wealth and power that separate rich and poor nations. Both Chapters 11 and 12 pay special attention to how global developments affect stratification in the United States just as they explore our society's role in global inequality. Chapter 13, gender stratification, explains how gender is a central element in social stratification in the United States as it is worldwide. Race and ethnicity, additional important dimensions of social inequality that often intersect differences based on class and gender, are detailed in Chapter 14. Aging and the elderly, a topic of increasing concern to "graying" societies such as our own, is addressed in Chapter 15.

Part IV includes a full chapter on each social institution. Leading off is Chapter 16, the economy and work, because most sociologists recognize the economy as having the greatest impact on all other institutions. This chapter traces the rise and fall of industrial production in the United States, the emergence of a global economy, and explains what such transformations mean for the U.S. labor force. Chapter 17, politics and government, analyzes the distribution of power in U.S. society as well as surveying political systems around the world. In addition, this chapter includes discussion of the U.S. military, the threat of war, and an expanded discussion of terrorism as a new form of war in the twenty-first century. Chapter 18, family, explains the central importance of families to social organization, and underscores the diversity of family life both here and in other societies. Chapter 19, religion, addresses the timeless human search for ultimate purpose and meaning, introduces major world religions, and explains how religious beliefs are linked to other dimensions of social life. Chapter 20, education, analyzes the expansion of schooling in industrial and postindustrial societies. Here again, schooling in the United States comes to life through contrasts with educational patterns in other countries. Chapter 21, health and medicine, reveals health to be a social issue just as much as it is a matter of biological processes. This chapter traces the historical emergence of scientific medicine, analyzes current medical issues and alternative approaches, and compares U.S. patterns to those found in other countries.

Part V examines important dimensions of global social change. Chapter 22 highlights the powerful impact of population growth and urbanization in the United States and throughout the world with special attention to the natural environment. Chapter 23 explores forms of collective behavior and explains how people seek or resist social change by joining social movements. Chapter 24 concludes the text with an overview of social change that contrasts traditional, modern, and postmodern societies. This chapter rounds out the text by explaining how and why world societies change and critically analyzing the benefits and liabilities of traditional, modern, and postmodern ways of life.


Everyone knows that introductory sociology texts have some things in common; but differences run deep. The extraordinary success of Sociology and Society: The Basics, which are far and away the most widely adopted texts by sociologists across North America, results from a combination of the following distinctive features.

The best writing style. Most important, this text offers a writing style widely praised by students and faculty alike as elegant and inviting. Sociology is an enjoyable text that encourages students to read—even beyond their assignments. No one says it better than the students themselves, whose recent e-mail includes testimonials such as these:

Thanks for writing such a brilliant book. It has
sparked my sociological imagination. This was the
first textbook that I have ever read completely and
enjoyed. From the moment that I picked the book
up I started reading nonstop.

I have read four chapters ahead; it's like a good
novel I can't put down! I just wanted to say thank

Your book is extremely well written and very
interesting. I find myself reading it for pleasure,
something I have never done with college texts. It
is going to be the only collegiate textbook that I ever
keep simply to read on my own. I am also thinking of
picking up sociology as my minor due to the fact that
I have enjoyed the class as well as the text so much.
Your writing has my highest praise and utmost appreciation.

I am taking a Sociology 101 class using Sociology, a
book that I have told my professor is the best textbook
that I have ever seen, bar none. I've told her as well that
I will be more than happy to take more sociology classes
as long as there is a Macionis text to go with them.

I am fascinated by the contents of this textbook.
In contrast to texts in my other classes, I actually
enjoy reading Sociology. Thank you for such a
thought-provoking, well-written textbook.

I absolutely love your sociology text! It is a wonderful
book. This is by far the best textbook I have ever used.
The CD-ROM has been very helpful and informative.
I had no idea that I would love sociology so much!

A global perspective. Sociology has taken a leading role in expanding the horizons of our discipline beyond the United States. Sociology was the first text to mainstream global content, introduce global maps, and offer coverage of global topics such as stratification and the environment. No wonder this text has been adapted and translated in many languages for use all over the world. Each chapter explores global social diversity as well as explaining why social trends in the United States—from musical tastes to the pace of airport security to the growing disparity of income—are influenced by what happens elsewhere.

A focus on national diversity. Sociology invites students from all social backgrounds to discover a fresh and exciting way to see the world and to understand themselves. Readers will find in this text the diversity of U.S. society—people of African, Asian, Middle Eastern, European, and Latino ancestry as well as women and men of various class positions, in all parts of the country, and at all points in the life course. An independent survey of all introductory books gave this text top marks for mainstreaming race and ethnicity (Stone, 1996).

Emphasis on critical thinking. Critical-thinking skills include the ability to challenge common assumptions by formulating questions, identify and weigh appropriate evidence, and reach reasoned conclusions. This text not only teaches but encourages students to discover on their own.

The broadest coverage so instructors can choose. No other text matches Sociology's twenty-four chapter coverage of the field. We offer such breadth—at no greater cost—knowing that few instructors will assign every chapter, but with the goal of supporting instructors as they choose exactly what they wish to teach.

Engaging and instructive chapter openings. One of the most popular features of Sociology is the engaging vignettes that begin each chapter. These openings—for instance, using the tragic sinking of the Titanic to illustrate the life and death consequences of social inequality, or the story of Linda Brown to explore racial inequality in the United States, or Utah's recent prosecution of Tom Green for polygamy to describe our ideas about the family—spark the interest of readers as they introduce important themes. This revision retains eleven of the best chapter-opening vignettes found in earlier editions and offers thirteen new ones as well.

Inclusive focus on women and men. Beyond devoting two full chapters to the important concepts of sex and gender, Sociology mainstreams gender into every chapter, showing how the topic at hand affects women and men differently and explaining how gender operates as a basic dimension of social organization.

Theoretically clear and balanced. Sociology, Ninth Edition, makes theory easy. Chapter 1 introduces the discipline's major theoretical approaches, which are used in all the chapters that follow. The text highlights not only the social-conflict, structural-functional, and symbolic-interaction paradigms, but incorporates feminist theory, social-exchange analysis, ethnomethodology, cultural ecology, and sociobiology.

Chapter 4—unique to this text—provides students with an easy-to-understand introduction to important social theorists before they encounter their work in later chapters. The ideas of Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Emile Durkheim, as well as Gerhard Lenski's historical overview of human societies, appear in distinct sections that instructors may assign together or refer to separately at different points in the course.

Recent research and the latest data. Sociology, Ninth Edition, blends classic sociological statements with the latest research as reported in the leading publications in the field. Some 250 new studies inform this revision, and about half of the 1500 pieces of research cited throughout the book were published since 1995. From chapter to chapter, the text's statistical data are the most recent available and include the results of Census 2000.

Learning aids. This text has many features to help students learn. In each chapter, key concepts are identified by boldfaced type, and following each appears a precise, italicized definition. A list of key concepts with their definitions appears at the end of each chapter, and a complete Glossary is found at the end of the book. Each chapter also contains a numbered Summary and four Critical-Thinking Questions that help students review material and assess their understanding. Following these are a number of Applications and Exercises, which provide students with activities to do on or near the campus. Each chapter also includes an annotated list of worthwhile Sites to See on the Internet.

Outstanding images: photography and fine art. This book offers the finest and most extensive program of photography and artwork available in any sociology textbook. The ninth edition of Sociology displays about 100 examples of fine art as well as more than 250 color photographs—more than in any other text. Each of these images is carefully selected by the author and appears with an insightful caption. Moreover, both photographs and artwork present people of various social backgrounds and historical periods. For example, alongside art by well-known Europeans such as Vincent Van Gogh and U.S. artists including George Tooker, this edition has paintings by celebrated African American artists Jacob Lawrence and Henry Ossawa Tanner, outstanding Latino artist Diego Rivera, and the engaging Australian painter and feminist Sally Swain.

Thought-provoking theme boxes. Although boxed material is common to introductory texts, Sociology, Ninth Edition, provides a wealth of uncommonly good boxes. Each chapter typically contains four boxes, which fall into five types that amplify central themes of the text. Global Sociology boxes provoke readers to think about their own way of life by examining the fascinating social diversity that characterizes our world. Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender boxes focus on multicultural issues and amplify the voices of women and people of color. Applying Sociology boxes show the value of the sociological perspective to understanding the world around us. Critical Thinking boxes teach students to ask sociological questions, about their surroundings and help them evaluate important controversial issues. Each Critical Thinking box is followed by three "What do you think?" questions. Controversy & Debate boxes complete each chapter by presenting several points of view on an issue of contemporary importance. The three "Continue the debate" questions that conclude each box are sure to stimulate spirited class discussion.

Sociology, Ninth Edition, contains ninety-four boxes in all. Fourteen of them are new to this edition and many more are revised and updated. A complete list of the boxes in this text can be found following the table of contents.

An unparalleled program of sixty-seven global and national maps. This is the text that pioneered the use of global and national maps. Windows on the World global maps—thirty-two in all and including eleven new ones—are truly sociological maps offering a comparative look at the number of children typically born to women, income disparity, favored languages and religions, the extent of prostitution, permitted marriage forms, the practice of female genital mutilation, the degree of political freedom, the incidence of HIV infection, and a host of other issues. The global maps use the non-Eurocentric projection devised by cartographer Arno Peters that accurately portrays the relative size of all the continents. A complete listing of the Window on the World global maps follows the table of contents.

Seeing Ourselves national maps—thirty-five in all with four new and many updated for this edition—help to illuminate the social diversity of the United States. Most of these maps offer a close-up look at all 3,014 U.S. counties, highlighting suicide rates, per capita income, labor force participation, college attendance, the prevalence of interracial marriage, most widespread religious affiliation, teen pregnancy rates, and, as measures of popular culture, where people play golf or where households prefer wine or drink beer. Each national map includes an explanatory caption that poses several questions to stimulate students' thinking about social forces. A complete list of the Seeing Ourselves national maps follows the table of contents.


Each new edition of Sociology has broken new ground, one reason that the popularity of this text and its brief version keeps rising. A revision raises high expectations, but, after several years of planning and hard work, we are pleased to offer what we believe is the best revision yet. Here is a brief overview of the innovations that define Sociology, Ninth Edition.

Keeping up with the field. As surprising as it may seem, some textbooks fail to reflect new work in the field, making few references to sociology journals and taking little notice of new books. In preparing this revision, I have reviewed new publications—including American Journal of Sociology, American Sociological Review, Rural Sociology, Social Forces, Sociological Focus, Sociological Forum, Society, The Public Interest, Social Problems, Population Bulletin, Teaching Sociology, Contemporary Sociology, and Social Science Quarterly—as well as popular press publications that keep us abreast of current trends and events.

Improved high-tech! For this edition, the CD-ROM includes a video library, presenting short clips that illustrate important concepts and ideas. This video material, drawn from the video library of ABC News, takes learning to a whole new level.

Students buying new copies of Sociology, Ninth Edition, will have open access to an updated Web site at http://www.prenhall.com/macionis. Begin by clicking on the cover of this book and follow the easy-to-use menus. At the site, students will find a full range of study materials including computer-graded practice tests. Faculty will find a resource bank including Power Point slides for download and software that allows instructors to put a course syllabus on the Internet without having to know anything about HTML. In addition, all users of this book are invited to make use of videos, biographies, and dozens of links found at the author's personal Web site at http://www.TheSociologyPage.com or http://www.macionis.com.

Linking technology to the text. At four or five points in each chapter, the text directs students to visit carefully selected Web sites. These sites provide biographical material about sociologists, useful data, or information about an organization that deals with the topic at hand.

More coverage of rural issues. Although most of the population of the United States lives in urban places, most of our country's counties are rural. Therefore, this revision pays special attention not only to urban social patterns but also to rural issues. Examples of this rural focus include a comparative analysis of rural and urban poverty and homelessness in Chapter 11; discussion of women in coal mining in Chapter 13; a discussion of the aging of U.S. farmers in Chapter 15; a new diversity box in Chapter 17 on the rural-urban divide in U.S. politics; and a discussion of the "rural rebound" in Chapter 22, as well as more photographs and artwork that reflect rural life. In addition, we have recently added Rural Sociology to the list of journals that provide new research reported in this text.

New maps! The only way to improve our colorful maps is be sure they are as up to date as possible. This edition features sixty-seven global and national maps, fifteen of them new to this edition.

New chapter-opening vignettes. This revision keeps the best of the popular chapter-opening vignettes and adds thirteen new ones; overall, more than half of the openings are new to this edition.

Many new boxes. A total of ninety-four boxes supports five themes of the text: Global Sociology, Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender, Critical Thinking, Applying Sociology, and, focusing on social policy, Controversy & Debate. Many boxes are revised and updated; fourteen boxes are new to this edition.

The latest statistical data. Instructors count on this text for including the very latest statistical data. The ninth edition comes through again, making use of data from the Internet as well as conventional bounds publications of various government agencies and private organizations. The author and Carol A. Singer, a professional government documents librarian at Bowling Green State University (Ohio), have worked together to ensure that the newest statistics are used throughout the text—in many cases for 2000 and even for 2001. These data include reported results of Census 2000. In addition, readers will find 250 new research citations as well as references to many familiar current events to peak their interest.

New topics. The ninth edition of Sociology is thoroughly updated with new and expanded discussions in every chapter. Here is a listing, by chapter, of some of the new material:

  • Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective: A new chapter opening explores how and why U.S. children are deeply involved in sports; in addition, a new global map highlights the number of children born to women around the world.
  • Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation: New material includes new end-of-chapter learning ideas and several new Web sites noted throughout the chapter.
  • Chapter 3 Culture: A new chapter opening describes the visit of members of the Andean Q'ero society to New York City; find an update on the "culture of victimization" thesis, a new journal entry on visiting Disney World, new links to the author's videos on travel and cultural relativism, and a new Global Sociology box comparing the dominant cultures of the United States and Canada.
  • Chapter 4 Society: There is an update on classic theorists' view of the Information Revolution as well as links to online biographies of sociology's founders.
  • Chapter 5 Socialization: Find an update on how the violent content in television programming and video games affects young children; a Web link provides a complete chapter on the sociology of the mass media; a new Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender box examines how race and ethnicity affect the personal development of high-school students.
  • Chapter 6 Social Interaction in Everyday Life: A new national map shows where people are and are not likely to be avid golfers; find updates on reality construction and the sociology of humor (including a few new jokes).
  • Chapter 7 Groups and Organizations: A new global snapshot highlights arts-related organizations in selected countries; there is an update on McDonaldization as well as new data on the share of incumbents who held their congressional seats in the 2000 elections, discussion of using social networks to find jobs by gender, race, and ethnicity, an update on gender and management positions in the United States, and new material on the controversy surrounding computers, large organizations, and personal privacy.
  • Chapter 8 Deviance: A new national map shows the risk of violent crime for all U.S. counties; there are updates on U.S. crime rates and a fresh look at the rising debate over capital punishment.
  • Chapter 9 Sexuality: A new chapter opening illustrates the problems of acceptance faced by transgender individuals; there are updates on U.S. attitudes about sexual practices and a new global map shows the use of contraception around the world.
  • Chapter 10 Social Stratification: Find an update on the unequal distribution of wealth in the United States; a new global snapshot shows that income inequality is greater in the United States than in high-income European nations.
  • Chapter 11 Social Class in the United States: A new chapter opening looks at a case of high-flying executive pay; a new national map shows average income for all counties across the United States; we've added a new discussion of rural homelessness and updated statistics on income, wealth, and poverty.
  • Chapter 12 Global Stratification: A new chapter opening notes natural disasters that are all too common in low-income nations; find new data showing which countries now fall into high-, middle-, and low-income categories as well as a new figure that charts the world's increasing income inequality.
  • Chapter 13 Gender Stratification: The chapter includes two new global maps illustrating women's power and the practice of female genital mutilation in global perspective; there are updates on the share of women in various job categories, including new data on the number of women in top corporate positions; new statistics show the latest gaps in earnings between women and men and between various racial and ethnic categories; new Web links take readers to recent government reports concerning gender.
  • Chapter 14 Race and Ethnicity: A new journal entry points out racial and ethnic stratification in everyday life; find Census 2000 data for various racial and ethnic categories as well as updates on income and other measures of social standing by race and ethnicity; there is more on the social construction of ethnicity as well as race, and the intersection of these variables with class and gender.
  • Chapter 15 Aging and the Elderly: A new chapter opening looks at the role of middle-aged people caring for aging parents; new data show the advancing average age of U.S. farmers and give updates on income for all categories of elderly people in the United States; a number of new Web sites provide access to recent data and analysis of issues related to aging.
  • Chapter 16 The Economy and Work: A new chapter opener illustrates the power of technology to change the character of work; a new global map shows the share of the labor force in service sector jobs for world nations; the chapter offers new data (which may surprise you) on the relative importance of the three economic sectors in high-, middle-, and low-income nations; new data on the U.S. labor force highlight the increasing share of minorities.
  • Chapter 17 Politics and Government: Updates the 2000 elections, including a new national map showing the county-by-county results of the presidential race; a new Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender box explains the rural-urban divide in U.S. politics; there is extensive coverage of terrorism and the events of September 11, 2001, including an analysis of terrorism as a new form of "asymmetrical" war.
  • Chapter 18 Family: A new opening profiles the "plural marriage" of Tom Green and his conviction for bigamy; updates are provided on all family trends including single-hood, divorce, single parenting, and cohabitation as well as family data from Census 2000.
  • Chapter 19 Religion: Did you know that the number of Muslims in the United States exceeds the number of Episcopalians, Presbyterians, or Jews? Find the most recent data, as well as an update on the ordination of women; there is also a new section on the search for spirituality in post-denominational U.S. society.
  • Chapter 20 Education: A new chapter opening highlights the far better performance on proficiency tests by children living in high-income communities compared to those from low-income areas; find updates on educational statistics as well as a new discussion of the U.S. teacher shortage.
  • Chapter 21 Health and Medicine: This chapter offers an update on the share of minority physicians in the United States as well as a new statistical profile of the health of the U.S. population; there is expanded discussion of health care policy in Canada.
  • Chapter 22 Population, Urbanization, and Environment: Find a new chapter opening as well as a new section describing the "rural rebound" trend; a new Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender box uses Census 2000 to highlight the minority majority in half the nation's largest 100 cities; there are updates on all U.S. demographic data and more on "critical demography."
  • Chapter 23 Collective Behavior and Social Movements: A new chapter opening describes the massive demonstration at the 1999 meeting of the World Trade Organization in Seattle; there is also a new discussion of moral panics, including the widespread fear in the wake of the events of September 11, 2001.
  • Chapter 24 Social Change: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Societies: A new chapter opening highlights the lives of two families who resided in the same New York City apartment a century apart; a new table provides a snapshot of change in the United States across the twentieth century; a new journal entry describes the appearance of mass society and an updated figure shows support for science in selected nations around the world.


This text's commitment to representing the social diversity of the United States and the world carries with it the responsibility to use language thoughtfully. In most cases, we prefer the terms African American and person of color to the word black. We use the terms Hispanic and Latino to refer to people of Spanish descent. Most tables and figures refer to "Hispanics" because this is the term the Census Bureau uses when collecting statistical data about our population.

Students should realize, however, that many individuals do not describe themselves using these terms. Although the term "Hispanic" is commonly used in the eastern part of the United States, and "Latino" and the feminine form "Latina" are widely heard in the West, across the United States people of Spanish descent identify with a particular ancestral nation, whether it be Argentina, Mexico, some other Latin American country, or Spain or Portugal in Europe.

The same holds for Asian Americans. Although this term is a useful shorthand in sociological analysis, most people of Asian descent think of themselves in terms of a specific country of origin (say, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or Vietnam).

In this text, the term "Native American" refers to all the inhabitants of the Americas (including the Hawaiian Islands) whose ancestors lived here prior to the arrival of Europeans. Here again, however, most people in this broad category identify with their historical society (for example, Cherokee, Hopi, or Zuni). The term "American Indian" designates only those Native Americans who live in the continental United States, not including Native peoples living in Alaska or Hawaii.

Learning to think globally also leads us to use language carefully. This text avoids the word "American"—which literally designates two continents—to refer to just the United States. For example, referring to this country, the term "U.S. economy" is more correct than the "American economy." This convention may seem a small point, but it implies the significant recognition that we in this country represent only one society (albeit a very important one) in the Americas.


Sociology, Ninth Edition, is the heart of an unprecedented multimedia learning package that includes a wide range of proven instructional aids as well as several new ones. As the author of the text, I maintain a keen interest in all the supplements to ensure their quality and integration with the text. The supplements for this revision have been thoroughly updated, improved, and expanded. Also, many of them are now available for easy download at http://www.prenhall.com/sociology_central


Annotated Instructor's Edition. The AIE is a complete student text annotated by the author on every page. Annotations—which have been thoroughly revised for this edition—have won praise from instructors for enriching class presentations. Margin notes include summaries of research findings, statistics from the United States or other nations, insightful quotations, information highlighting patterns of social diversity in the United States, and high-quality survey data from the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) General Social Survey and World Values Survey data from the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (CPSR).

Data File. This is the "instructor's manual" that is of interest even to those who have never used one before. The Data File provides far more than detailed chapter outlines and discussion questions; it contains statistical profiles of the United States and other nations, summaries of important developments, and significant research and supplemental lecture material for every chapter of the text. The Data File is available in Windows format as well as the traditional print version.

Test Item File. A revised test item file prepared by John Macionis is available in both printed and computerized forms. The file contains 2400 items—100 per chapter—in multiple-choice, true/false, and essay formats. Questions are identified as simple "recall" items or more complex inferential issues, and answers to all questions are page referenced to the text. Prentice Hall Custom Test is a test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams. It is available in Windows and Macintosh formats. Prentice Hall also provides a test preparation service to users of this text that is as easy as a call to our toll-free 800 number. Please contact your Prentice Hall representative for this number.

Film/Video Guide: Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology Sixth Edition. Keyed to the chapters of this text, this guide describes more than 300 films and videos appropriate for classroom viewing. It also provides summaries, discussion questions, and rental sources for each film and video.

ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library for Sociology. Few will dispute that video is the most dynamic supplement you can use to enhance a classroom presentation. However, the quality of the video material and how well it relates to your course still make all the difference. Prentice Hall and ABC News are working together to bring to you the best and most comprehensive video ancillaries available in the college market.

Through its wide variety of award-winning programs—Nightline, This Week, World News Tonight, and 20/20—ABC offers a resource for feature and documentary-style videos related to the chapters in Sociology, Ninth Edition. The programs have high production quality, present substantial content, and are hosted by well-versed, well-known anchors.

The authors and editors of Prentice Hall have carefully selected videos on topics that complement Sociology, Ninth Edition, and have included notes on how to use them in the classroom. An excellent instructor's guide carefully and completely integrates the videos into your lecture. The guide has a synopsis of each video that shows its relation to the chapter and discussion questions to help students focus on how concepts and theories apply to real-life situations.

  • Volume I: Social Stratification (0-13-466228-8)
  • Volume II: Marriage/Families (0-13-209537-8)
  • Volume III: Race/Ethnic Relations (0-13-4585062)
  • Volume IV Criminology (0-13-375163-5)
  • Volume V Social Problems (0-13-437823-7)
  • Volume VI: Intro to Sociology I (0-13-095066-1)
  • Volume VII: Intro to Sociology II (0-13-095060-2)
  • Volume VIII: Intro to Sociology III (0-13-095773-9)
  • Volume IX: Social Problems (0-13-0957747)
  • Volume X: Marriage/Families II (0-13-095775-5)
  • Volume XI: Race and Ethnic Relations II (0-13-021134-6)
  • Volume XII: Institutions (0-13021133-8)
  • Volume XIII: Introductory Sociology IV (0-13-018507-8)
  • Volume XIV Introductory Sociology V (0-13-018509-4)

Prentice Hall Introductory Sociology PowerPoint Transparencies. Created by Roger J. Eich of Hawkeye Community College, this PowerPoint slide set combines graphics and text in a colorful format to help you convey sociological principles in a new and exciting way. Created in PowerPoint, an easy-to-use, widely available software program, this set contains over 300 slides keyed to each chapter in the text. For easy down load, they are available on our instructor resource site at http://www.prenhall.com/sociology_central

Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VII. Full-color illustrations, charts, and other visual materials from the text as well as outside sources have been selected to make up this useful in-class tool.

Instructor's Guide to Prentice Hall Color Transparencies: Sociology Series VII. This guide offers suggestions for effectively using each transparency in the classroom.


Interactive CD-ROM. Using video as a window to the world outside of the classroom, this innovative CD-ROM offers students videos and animations arranged according to theme (Global Perspective, Social Diversity, or Critical Thinking) within each chapter. Students can view relevant ABC News clips and author video tips, interact with the global and national maps, and review sociological concepts through video. The CD-ROM is available free with all new copies of Sociology, Ninth Edition.

Census 2000 Update CD-ROM. Capturing the rich picture of our nation drawn by Census 2000, this CDROM brings related Census data into your classroom in a multimedia format. It is free when packaged with Sociology, Ninth Edition.

Companion Website. In tandem with the text, students and professors can now take full advantage of the Internet to enrich their study of sociology. The Macionis Companion Website continues to lead the way in providing students with avenues for delving deeper into the topics covered in the text. Features of the Web site include chapter objectives, study questions, and faculty resources, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that will reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Use of the site is free to both students and faculty. Please visit the site at http://www.prenhall.com/macionis and click on the cover of Sociology, Ninth Edition.

ContentSelect. Developed by Prentice Hall and EBSCO, the world leader in online journal subscription management, ContentSelect is a customized research database for students of sociology. A collection of over 125 sources—peer-reviewed journals as well as popular magazines, but all with relevance to sociology—provide students with a reputable starting point for their research. If you would like to integrate this resource into your course, a free student access code can be packaged with Sociology, Ninth Edition. Please contact your Prentice Hall representative for more information or visit the ContentSelect Web site at www.prenhall.com/contentselect

Distance Learning Solutions. Prentice Hall is committed to providing our leading content to the growing number of courses being delivered over the Internet by developing relationships with the leading vendors—Blackboard, Web CT, and CourseCompass, Prentice Hall's own easy-to-use course management system powered by Blackboard. Please visit our technology solutions site at http://www.prenhall.com/demo

Sociology on the Internet: A Critical Thinking Guide, 2001. This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the discipline of sociology. This supplementary book is free to students when packaged with Sociology, Ninth Edition. Please contact your Prentice Hall representative for more information.


Study Guide. This complete guide helps students to review and reflect on the material presented in Sociology, Ninth Edition. Each of the twenty-four chapters in the Study Guide provides an overview of the corresponding chapter in the student text, summarizes its major topics and concepts, offers applied exercises, and features end-of-chapter tests with solutions.

Practice Tests. This collection of study questions offers students a learning opportunity that is free when packaged with Sociology, Ninth Edition.

The New York Times Supplement, Themes of the Times, for Introductory Sociology. The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information relevant to the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in this text is supplemented by a collection of timely articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times. These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us.

To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information, call toll-free 1-800631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to co-sponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic and involving process.

10 Ways to Fight Hate Brochure. Produced by the Southern Poverty Law Center, the leading hate-crime and crime-watch organization in the United States, it walks students through ten steps that they can take on their own campus or in their own neighborhood to fight hate everyday.

Critical Thinking Audiocassette Tape. In keeping with the text's critical thinking approach, a sixty-minute audio tape is available to help students think and read critically.

--This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

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Product Details

  • Hardcover
  • Publisher: Pearson Prentice Hall; 8th edition (August 2000)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0130404225
  • ISBN-13: 978-0130404220
  • Product Dimensions: 1.2 x 8.8 x 10.5 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 3.5 pounds
  • Average Customer Review: 4.8 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (6 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #4,232,543 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

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Format: Hardcover
Since my first introduction to sociology course, I have always been a fan of John Macionis. Typically, college textbooks are painful to read, filled with mundane facts, awkward prose, and very little visual aid. Not so with this textbook. Macionis clearly explains every sociological perspective, gives each side a fair and accurate account (this is very important to me since most professors will often distort information to fit within their ideological framework) of controversial views. After the class was over, I spent time reading this book during the summer. I never sold it. I have even had the ability to use most of the material -- particularly the citations -- for other courses. Sometimes professors will even be surprised that I can cite information that contradicts the stale information they are continuing to repeat but are contradicted by the more accurate and factual data contained herein. It's a great book. Professors: assign this book. Students: if your professor assigns this book, it will be a fun class! And layreaders: this is a highly recommended textbook!
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Format: Hardcover Verified Purchase
This was not the book recommended for my Sociology class BUT it had all the relevant information, it is well organized and easy to follow. I bought a used one which was in perfect condition and at a ridiculously cheap price...overall I would definitely recommend for first or second year university students. I haven't gotten my grade back as yet but I am confident it will be an A. :) yea me!
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Format: Hardcover
Having just taught a course using this text I do have some opinions about it.
First, the positive. Macionis has gone to great lengths to make the text interesting. One way in which he has done this is by scattering numerous relevant pictures and artwork throughout every chapter; I actually had one student comment specifically about the artwork and how it was well chosen. He has also included a number of very informative maps, tables and graphs, all in vibrant colors, that are designed in such a fashion that even first year undergraduate students with little or no background in sociology can understand them.
As for the coverage of the text, it is fairly comprehensive, hitting upon all of the major social institutions of interest to sociologists and sub-disciplines within the field of sociology. The text is also quite up to date for the most part, including references to recent world events (e.g. 9/11).
Now for the negative. I should note at this point that despite having more critiques than compliments, I did find the text to be the best of a number of current introductory texts, these are just ways that I felt the book could have been improved.
First, the information isn't flawless. Of course part of this criticism includes the fact that I disagree with the author on some points, but there are also several instances where the author makes claims without references to back them up and other claims that are either dated or simply erroneous. I don't know that a textbook will ever be able to adequately cover all of the information necessary and do so flawlessly, so to critique the book on this measure is probably asking too much. Besides, with how fluid sociological understanding is some of the claims in the text with which I disagree are controversial topics anyway.
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