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# About Sunil Tanna

Hello. I am Sunil Tanna - author, software developer, and tutor (maths and science). You can find out more about me at my website, www.suniltanna.com

My first real memory of reading a book was when I was five, in infants school. The teacher was conducting a very detailed and rather slow lesson on how to tell the time. I already knew how to tell the time, or at least I thought I did, and I was bored.

The whole class was sitting on a mat, and I happened to be sitting near the back, next to a bookshelf. I took a book off the shelf about a group of school children who investigated, and eventually solved, a smuggling mystery. Completely absorbed, I sat quietly reading to myself.

I don't think it was a huge book, it couldn't have been, but I amazed myself by managing to read the entire book cover to cover. Just as I turned the last the last page, I suddenly realised that the lesson was coming to an end. I remember worrying that I might have missed some vital new detail of telling the time that perhaps the teacher had slipped in during the second half of the lesson.

Somehow however I survived. I've had a love of books ever since, although nowadays I generally try to choose more opportune moments to read them.

As a writer, I hope to write about both my personal experiences, and the things that interest me most. Since I have quite an eclectic range of interests, you can expect a diverse range of books from me in future.

I hope you enjoy reading my books, and if you do, don't forget to leave a review on Amazon.

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- How codes and ciphers work

- How secret messages can be concealed in apparently innocuous messages (steganography)

- How codebreakers and cryptanalysts break codes and ciphers

- Many examples of how codes and ciphers have changed history and continue to shape the world to this day

**Table of Contents**

**Introduction: What are Codes, Ciphers and Steganography?**

**Chapter 1: Codes used for Communication**

Flag Code

Semaphore Code

Polybius Square

Optical Telegraph Codes

Electrical Telegraph Codes

- International Morse Code

- Baudot Code

- Murray Code and ITA 2

- ASCII

Computer Codes

**Chapter 2: Caesar Ciphers**

Using a Caesar Cipher

Variations of the Caesar Cipher

- ROT13

- ROT5

- ROT18

- ROT47

- Avgad and Albam

Breaking Caesar Ciphers

**Chapter 3: Simple Substitution Ciphers**

Atbash Cipher

Simple Alphabet Substitution Ciphers

Simple Symbolic Substitution Ciphers

- Pigpen Cipher

Breaking Simple Substitution Ciphers

- Frequency Analysis

- Cribs

Defeating Frequency Analysis

- Short Messages

- Homophony

- Null Characters

- Other Methods

**Chapter 4: Transposition Ciphers**

Scytale

Rail Fence Ciphers

Route Ciphers

Columnar Transposition Ciphers

Double Columnar Transposition Ciphers

Myszkowski Transposition Ciphers

Disrupted Transposition Ciphers

Grille Ciphers

- Trellis Ciphers

- Fleissner Ciphers

- Crossword Ciphers

**Chapter 5: Fractionation and Diffusion**

Bifid Cipher

Trifid Cipher

**Chapter 6: Polygraphic Substitution**

Advantages and Disadvantages of Polygraphic Ciphers

Playfair Cipher

Two-Square Cipher

Four-Square Cipher

**Chapter 7: Polyalphabetic Ciphers**

Alberti Cipher

Trithemius Cipher

Vigenère Ciphers

Beaufort and Variant Beaufort Cipher

Autokey Ciphers

**Chapter 8: Enigma**

The Enigma Machine

How Enigma was Broken

- Early British Efforts

- Polish Cipher Bureau

- Polish Cooperation with the Western Allies

- PC Bruno

- Cadix

- British Efforts Against Italian Naval Enigma

- The British Focus on Cribs

- British and American Bombes

- German Suspicions

**Chapter 9: Perfect Ciphers**

Vernam Cipher

One-Time Pads

Difficulties of Implementing a Perfect Cipher

- Protecting the Key

- Not Reusing the Key

- Randomness in the Key

- The Equipment Used Must Be Secure

Lorenz Cipher

- Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz Cipher

**Chapter 10: Codewords**

One-time Code

Nomenclator

Midway

**Chapter 11: Book Ciphers**

Book Word Substitution Ciphers

Book Letter Substitution Ciphers

Running Key Ciphers

**Chapter 12: Computer Cryptography**

Symmetric-Key Cryptography

Public-Key Cryptography

Cryptographic Hashes and Digital Signatures

**Chapter 13: Steganography and Hidde**

Updated April 2020

Table of Contents:

1: The Solar System: A Whistle-Stop Tour

The Sun

The Planets

-How Many Planets?

-How Far are the Planets from the Sun?

-Planetary Orbits

-Planetary Rotation

-Types of Planets

Minor Planets, Dwarf Planets & Comets

-Minor Planets of the Inner Solar System - Asteroids

-Minor Planets of the Outer Solar System

-Dwarf Planets

-Comets

Meteoroids, Micrometeoroids & Space Dust

-Meteors & Meteorites

-Sources of Meteoroids & Micrometeoroids

-Meteor Showers & Meteor Storms

Moons

-How Many Moons are There?

-Can a Moon Have Its Own Moons?

-How Big Can Moons Be?

-How Small Can Moons Be?

-Orbital Characteristics of Moons

-Tidal Locking

-Trojan Satellites

2: The Sun

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Rotation

Study & Exploration

3: Mercury

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

4: Venus

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

5: Earth

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Study & Exploration

Orbit

Rotation

The Moon

Study & Exploration

Life

6: Mars

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

7: Jupiter

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Rings

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

8: Saturn

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Rings

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

9: Uranus

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Rings

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

10: Neptune

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Rings

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

11: Planet Nine

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Rings

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

12: Ceres

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Study & Exploration

Life?

13: Pluto

Name & Discovery

Physical Characteristics

Orbit

Rotation

Moons

Study & Exploration

Life?

14: Haumea<

Topics covered include:

INTRODUCING NUMBER BASES AND BINARY

CONVERTING FROM BINARY TO DENARY AND VICE-VERSA

How to Convert a Binary Number to Denary

How to Convert a Denary Number to Binary

HOW COMPUTERS GROUP BINARY DIGITS

A Closer Look at Bytes

A Closer Look at Words

* Word alignment, word alignment and packing, byte ordering and endianness

Addresses

BOOLEAN OPERATIONS AND LOGIC GATES

Fundamentals of Boolean Algebra

* NOT, AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOR, NXOR

Combining Logic Gates

* NOT, AND, OR, XOR, NOR using NAND logic

Logical Versus Bitwise Operations

Using Bitwise Operations to Set, Clear, Flip or Test Bits

* Setting bits, inverting bits, clearing bits, testing bits

ADDING AND SUBTRACTING IN BINARY

Adding Binary Integers

* The column addition method of adding denary numbers and adding binary numbers, implementing binary addition using logic gates

Subtracting Binary Integers

* The column subtraction methods of subtracting denary numbers and subtracting binary numbers, implementing binary subtraction using logic gates

SHIFT OPERATIONS

Left Shift

Right Shift

Circular Shifts

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION IN BINARY

Multiplication

* Multiplying by a power of 2, column multiplication, Russian peasant multiplication algorithm, multiplication in hardware

Division

* Dividing by a power of 2, denary long division, binary long division, algorithm for binary long division, division in hardware

REPRESENTING CHARACTERS AND STRINGS OF CHARACTERS

Representing Individual Characters

* ASCII, extended ASCIIs, BCDIC and other early character encodings, EBCDIC, Unicode

Representing Strings of Characters

* Terminated strings, length-prefixed strings, other string representations

REPRESENTING TEXT AND GRAPHICS ON SCREEN

Text Mode Displays

Bitmap Displays

PARITY CHECKING

What is a Parity Bit

Even and Odd Parity

Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of Using Parity Checking

Parity's Use in RAID Storage Devices

Unused Parity Bits

SIGNED INTEGERS

Offset Binary

Signed Magnitude Representation

One's Complement

Two's Complement

Other Representations of Signed Numbers

* Base -2, signed-digit representation

REAL NUMBERS

Fixed Point Representation

Floating Point Representation

Rational Data Type

Logarithmic Number Systems

DENARY ENCODINGS AND DECIMAL DATA TYPES

Why Use Denary Representations of Real Numbers?

In this book, among other things, you will learn:

* What are number bases (also known as radixes)

* What is binary (base 2)

* How to convert binary numbers to denary (base 10)

* How to convert denary numbers to binary

* What is octal (base 8)

* How to convert octal numbers to denary

* How to convert denary numbers to octal

* Why many programmers and computer scientists use octal

* How to convert octal numbers to binary

* How to convert binary numbers to octal

* What is hexadecimal (base 16)

* How to convert hexadecimal numbers to denary

* How to convert denary numbers to hexadecimal

* Why many programmers and computer scientists use hexadecimal

* How to convert hexadecimal numbers to binary

* How to convert binary numbers to hexadecimal

* Is there a reason to prefer octal over hexadecimal or vice-versa?

- What the Platonic solids are
- The history of the discovery of Platonic solids
- The common features of all Platonic solids
- The geometrical details of each Platonic solid
- Examples of where each type of Platonic solid occurs in nature
- How we know there are only five types of Platonic solid (geometric proof)
- A topological proof that there are only five types of Platonic solid
- What are dual polyhedrons
- What is the dual polyhedron for each of the Platonic solids
- The relationships between each Platonic solid and its dual polyhedron
- How to calculate angles in Platonic solids using trigonometric formulae
- The relationship between spheres and Platonic solids
- How to calculate the surface area of a Platonic solid
- How to calculate the volume of a Platonic solid
- An introduction to some other interesting types of polyhedra – prisms, antiprisms, Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra, Archimedean solids, Catalan solids, Johnson solids, and deltahedra.

Note: Some familiarity with basic trigonometry and very basic algebra (high school level) will allow you to get the most out of this book - but in order to make this book accessible to as many people as possible, I have included a brief recap on some necessary basic concepts from trigonometry (such as sine, cosine, radians, etc.).

In this beautiful full-color illustrated book, you will learn about:

- And much more
- The paleogeography of the Jurassic- how the continents were positioned and moved
- The climate of the Jurassic
- The flora of the Jurassic
- Marine life of the Triassic including plankton, marine invertebrates, fish and marine reptiles such ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and thalattosuchians
- Terrestrial life of the Triassic including insects, spiders, lungfish, amphibians, turtles, lepidosaurs, therapsids (mammals and mammal-like reptiles), pterosaurs, crocodilans, dinosaurs and birds
- And much more

Table of Contents:

**Introduction**

**Chapter 1: Before the Jurassic Period**

The Formation of the Solar System and the Earth

The Hadean Eon

The Archaean Eon

The Proterozoic Eon

The Phanerozoic Eon

- The Paleozoic Era

- The End of the Paleozoic Era

- The Mesozoic Era – The Triassic Period

**Chapter 2: Introducing the Jurassic Period**

Subdivisions (Epochs) of the Jurassic Period

- Early Jurassic Epoch

- Middle Jurassic Epoch

- Late Jurassic Epoch

**Chapter 3: Paleogeography of the Jurassic Period**

**Chapter 4: Climate of the Jurassic Period**

**Chapter 5: Flora of the Jurassic Period**

**Chapter 6: Marine Fauna of the Jurassic Period**

Plankton

Marine Invertebrates

Fish

Sauropterygians, Plesiosaurs and Pliosaurs

Turtles

Ichthyosaurs

Thalattosuchians

Pleurosaurids

**Chapter 7: Terrestrial and Freshwater Fauna of the Jurassic Period**

Insects

Spiders

Lungfish

Amphibians

Turtles

Lepidosauromorpha

- Pantestudines

- Kuehneosauridae

- Rhynchocephalia

- Squamata

Therapsids and Mammals

Archosaurs

- Pterosaurs

- Crocodylomorpha

- Dinosaurs and Birds

**Chapter 8: Dinosaurs and Birds of the Jurassic Period**

Saurischia and Ornithischia

Theropods

- Coelophysids

- Dilophosaurids

- Cryolophosaurus

- Ceratosaurids

- Abelisaurids

- Noasaurids

- Megalosaurids

- Spinosaurids

- Piatnitzkysaurids

- Gasosaurus and Kaijiangosaurus

- Monolophosaurus

- Allosaurids

- Metriacanthosaurids

- Carcharodontosaurids

- Coelurids

- Compsognathids

- Tyrannosauroidea

- Maniraptoriformes, Maniraptorans and Birds

- Archaeoteryx and the Origin of Birds

- Ornitholestes

Sauropodomorpha and Sauropods

- Basal Sauropodomorphs (Anchisaurs and Massospondylids)

- Basal Sauropods (Vulcanodontids)

- Shunosaurus

- Diplodocids

- Dicraeosaurids

- Rebbachisaurids

- Haplocanthosaurus

- Brachiosaurids

- Camarasaurids

- Cetiosaurids

- Mamenchisaurids

Ornithischians

- Basal Ornithischians (including Heterodontosaurids)

- Lesothosaurus

- Basal Thyreophora

- Stegosauria

- Ankylos

Topics covered include:

* What is a fraction

* Names of fractions

* Fractions as division (converting a fraction into a division calculation and back)

* Mixed numbers

* Improper ("top heavy") fractions

* Converting mixed numbers to top heavy fractions

* Converting whole numbers to top heavy fractions

* Converting top heavy fractions to mixed numbers

* Equivalent fractions

* Simplifying fractions

* Expressing fractions in their simplest form

* Comparing fractions

* Adding fractions (including adding several fractions together)

* Subtracting fractions

* Multiplying fractions (including multiplying several fractions together)

* Simplifying fraction multiplications

* Dividing fractions

* Simplifying complex fractions (fractions within a fraction)

* How to convert fractions into decimal numbers

* How to convert decimal numbers into fractions

Every topic is explained in detail, complete with many step-by-step worked examples and diagrams. Additionally. major topics are immediately followed by a set of practice questions (there are well over 300 questions in total in the book), the answers to which can be found at the end of each chapter.

In summary, whether you want to learn fractions yourself, or teach your kids fractions, or are a student preparing for exams such as GCSEs or high school maths tests, or are an adult learner wishing to improve your numeracy and knowledge of this important math topic - this book is ideal for you.

This book has been specially prepared for use on the Kindle - including taking great care to ensure all math symbols, formulas, and calculations display correctly on the Kindle screen (many other math books do not display math symbols correctly). A color screen is recommended, but not essential - there are a couple of diagrams where the text refers to colors in the picture - but these should still be understandable even on a black and white screen.

Table of contents is:

**Chapter 1: What are Scientific Notation and Engineering Notation?**

Whole Number Powers of 10

What is Scientific Notation?

- Converting Decimal Numbers to Normalized Scientific Notation

- Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal

What is Normalized Scientific Notation (Standard Form)?

- Significant Figures

- Estimated Final Digits

- E-notation and Other Notational Standards

- Converting Decimal Numbers to Normalized Scientific Notation

- Converting Scientific Notation to Decimal

What is Engineering Notation?

- Significant Figures

- Engineering Notation and SI Unit Prefixes

- Converting Decimal Numbers to Engineering Notation

- Converting Engineering Notation to Decimal

Normalizing and Denormalizing Numbers in Scientific and Engineering Notation

- Increasing the Value of the Exponent and Decreasing the Absolute Value of the Coefficient

- Decreasing the Value of the Exponent and Increasing the Absolute Value of the Coefficient

- Converting a Number in Normalized Scientific Notation to Engineering Notation

- Converting a Number in Engineering Notation to Normalized Scientific Notation

Questions

Answers to Chapter 1 Questions

**Chapter 2: Comparing Numbers in Scientific Notation**

Comparing Numbers in Normalized Scientific Notation

Comparing Numbers in Engineering Notation

Comparing Numbers in Denormalized Scientific Notation

Questions

Answers to Chapter 2 Questions

**Chapter 3: Orders of Magnitude**

Definitions of Order of Magnitude

Order of Magnitude Estimates

Order of Magnitude Differences

- Approximate Order of Magnitude Differences

Questions

Answers to Chapter 3 Questions

**Chapter 4: Adding & Subtraction**

How to Add Numbers in Scientific and Engineering Notation

- Approximate Addition in Scientific and Engineering Notation

How to Subtract Numbers in Scientific and Engineering Notation

- Approximate Subtraction in Scientific and Engineering Notation

Questions

Answers to Chapter 4 Questions

Chapter 5: Multiplication and Division

How to Multiply Numbers in Scientific and Engineering Notation

- Approximate Multiplication in Scientific and Engineering Notation

How to Divide Numbers in Scientific and Engineering Notation

- Approximate

In this beautiful full-color illustrated book, you will learn about:

- How life began in the seas as simple single-celled organisms
- How single-celled organisms grew more complex and changed the planet
- The sudden appearance of many multicellular life forms during the Cambrian explosion
- How life colonized the land
- The evolution of the first tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates) from fish
- How tetrapods diversified to produce reptiles and our ancestors, the synapsid mammal-like reptiles
- The greatest mass extinction in history that brought the Paleozoic Era to a close
- And much more

Table of Contents:

**Introduction**

**Chapter 1: How the Earth was Formed**

The Formation of the Solar System

The Formation of the Planets Including Earth.

**Chapter 2: The Hadean Eon**

Conditions in the Hadean Eon

**Chapter 3: The Archean Eon**

Conditions in the Archean Eon

Prokaryota – The First Life

**Chapter 4: Proterozoic Eon**

The Great Oxygenation Event and the Huronian Glaciation

More Complex Life – Eukaryota

The Cryogenian Period

The Ediacaran Period – The First Multicellular Life

**Chapter 5: The Phanerozoic Eon and the Paleozoic Era**

Eras of the Phanerozoic Eon

Periods of the Paleozoic Era

**Chapter 6: The Cambrian Period**

Paleogeography of the Cambrian Period

The Cambrian Explosion

Animals of the Cambrian Period

Plants of the Cambrian Period

Mass Extinctions of the Cambrian Period

**Chapter 7: The Ordovician Period**

Paleogeography of the Ordovician Period

Climate of Ordovician Period

The Ordovician Radiation

Animals of the Ordovician Period

Mass Extinctions of the Ordovician Period

**Chapter 8: The Silurian Period**

Paleogeography of the Silurian Period

Climate of Silurian Period

Animals of the Silurian Period

Life on Land

**Chapter 9: The Devonian Period**

Paleogeography of the Devonian Period

Marine Life in the Devonian Period

The First Tetrapods

The Devonian Explosion

Mass Extinctions of the Devonian Period

**Chapter 10: The Carboniferous Period (including Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Subperiods)**

Paleogeography of the Carboniferous Period

Climate of Carboniferous Period

Forests and Coal Deposits

Marine Life in the Carboniferous Period

Amphibians of the Carboniferous Period

The First Amniotes

Terrestrial Arthropods of the Carboniferous

The Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse

The Diversification of Amniotes – Parareptiles, Synapsids and Diapsids

**Chapter 11: The Permian Period**

Paleogeography of the Permian Period

Climate of the Permian Period

Plants of the Permian Period

Amphibians of the Permian Period

Parareptiles of the Permian Period

Diapsids of the Permian Period

Synapsids of the Permian Period

Insects of the Permian Period

Mass Extinctions of the Permian Period

**Chapter 12: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras**

The Mesozoic Era

This book is the story of how I did it, and how I believe you can too!

Part personal story, part guidebook, inside you will find a “no holds barred” account of exactly how I permanently changed my lifestyle so eating healthily and doing regular exercise became not only routine, but easy. This book isn’t a diet or exercise plan, doesn’t tell you precisely what to eat, or how to work-out, but it does contain a detailed roadmap to how you can change your life for the better, and watch the weight fall away.

Some of things you will discover include:

* How to consistently measure your weight so as to make it easy to do day-to-day comparisons

* How to keep track of your weight, and really know if you are gaining or losing

* How to set yourself weight loss goals, and adjust them as you go

* How to make healthy lifestyle choices that you will stick with rather than abandon after a short time

* The most reliable way to incorporate regular exercise into your daily routine

* How to choose sporting activities that will keep you motivated

* How setting ambitious goals can help you achieve more than you might have ever thought possible

* How to shop for healthy foods, and how to really read labels

* Simple adjustments to the types of food you eat that can save on calories and help you lose weight

* Suggestions for reducing the calorie counts in your breakfast, lunch, and dinner

* How to deal with snacking (including 11 low-calorie snack suggestions)

* Tips to help you eat more healthily when eating out

* Ideas for boosting your metabolism, and even to help you burn more calories when on vacation at the beach

In short, if you want to lose weight, have tried diet and exercise plans, and they either haven’t worked for you, or you’ve been unable to stick with them – then this book is for you.

These ideas worked for me – and they can work for you too!

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