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Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Critique Hardcover – November 30, 2017
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“This volume fills a wide and expanding gap for Christians who continue to struggle with the relationship of evangelical Christianity to the claims of science. Specifically, for those who have rightly rejected the claims of unguided evolution, this book takes on the similar challenge of the possibility of theistic evolution. Scholarly, informative, well-researched, and well-argued, this will be the best place to begin to ferret out reasons for conflict among Christians who take science seriously. I highly recommend this resource.”
—K. Scott Oliphint, professor of apologetics and systematic theology and dean of faculty, Westminster Theological Seminary
“Theistic evolution means different things to different people. This book carefully identifies, and thoroughly debunks, an insidious, all-too-commonly accepted sense of the phrase even among Christians: that there is no physical reason to suspect life was designed, and that evolution proceeded in the unguided, unplanned manner Darwin himself championed.”
—Michael J. Behe, professor of biological sciences, Lehigh University; author, Darwin’s Black Box and The Edge of Evolution
“Evangelicals are experiencing unprecedented pressure to make peace with the Darwinian theory of evolution, and increasing numbers are waving the white flag. The tragic irony is that evolutionary theory is more beleaguered than ever in the face of multiplying scientific challenges and growing dissent. Until now there has been no consolidated scholarly response to theistic evolution that combines scientific, philosophical, and theological critiques. I was excited to hear about this ambitious project, but the final book has exceeded my expectations. The editors have assembled an impressive cast of experts and the content is top-notch. Theistic evolutionists, and those swayed by their arguments, owe it to themselves to read and digest this compendium of essays. This book is timely and necessary—quite literally a godsend.”
—James N. Anderson, associate professor of theology and philosophy, Reformed Theological Seminary, Charlotte; author, What’s Your Worldview?
“Repeating the error of medieval Christianity, theistic evolution absolutizes the words of finite, fallible humans and relativizes the Word of an infinite, infallible God. As this tremendous and timely collection thoroughly demonstrates, scientific stagnation, circular philosophy, and heterodox theology are the inevitable results. This is simply the best critique of theistic evolution available.”
—Angus Menuge, chair of philosophy, Concordia University Wisconsin; president, Evangelical Philosophical Society; author, Agents Under Fire: Materialism and the Rationality of Science
“This significant book persuasively argues that theistic evolution fails as a theory—scientifically, philosophically, and biblically. And with its broad-ranging collection of essays, it mounts a very impressive case. Strongly recommended, both for those who seek to defend Christianity intelligently and for those who find Christianity implausible because of the claims of neo-Darwinism.”
—Michael Reeves, president and professor of theology, Union School of Theology
“The theistic evolution solution to the creation-evolution controversy herein encounters a substantial, sustained, and trenchant critique. The team of scientific, philosophical, and theological scholars assembled by the editors have joined to confront the venerable theory with a stinging challenge that its adherents will have to answer if they value their scholarly integrity. This is necessary reading for those who wrestle with the great questions surrounding the origins of life.”
—Peter A. Lillback, president, Westminster Theological Seminary
“The theory of theistic evolution is certainly not new. But as a vigorous antagonist to evangelical Christianity, it has leaped to new life on the cultural stage. Most Christians have the sense to reject the evolutionary model of Darwin with its pronounced atheism, but they are sometimes intrigued by the possibility of theistic evolution. In this book, evangelical believers are treated to a serious assessment of the claims of theistic evolution at the hands of some of the greatest thinkers God has ever given to the church. These assessments are thorough, exciting, and support the biblical creation story in unique and new ways. If you intend to read only one volume to bring you up to date on cultural challenges to Christianity, this book is the one you need to read.”
—Paige Patterson, president, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary
“This landmark achievement contains an amazing collection of chapters by a powerful group of fully qualified experts in molecular biology, mathematics, philosophy, and theology. The chapters are clear, detailed in addressing all aspects of theistic evolution, and of a tone in keeping with 1 Peter 3:15: ‘with gentleness and respect.’ I consider this a must-have book for any Christian who wants to be able to give compelling answers to others who believe in theistic evolution.”
—Richard A. Carhart, professor emeritus of physics, University of Illinois at Chicago
“This book offers a much-needed, comprehensive critique of evolutionary creationism (theistic evolution), covering its scientific, philosophical, theological, and biblical deficiencies. It devotes much space in particular to the scientific side. This focus is needed because of the common, unwarranted assumption that Darwinism is doing well as measured by scientific evidence. Several articles, from different angles, show how much Darwinism depends on seeing all biological evidence through the lens of a prior commitment to faith in the philosophy of naturalism—particularly the ungrounded assumption that unguided natural forces must suffice as a complete account of origins.”
—Vern S. Poythress, professor of New Testament interpretation, Westminster Theological Seminary
“‘In wisdom you have made them all,’ says the psalmist of God’s activities in nature (Ps. 104:24). But believers today, often blinded by modern science, fail to see that divine wisdom. This valuable volume challenges the assumptions of much scientific endeavor and proposes a fresh paradigm that is open to God’s involvement in nature. It deserves a wide and thoughtful readership.”
—Gordon Wenham, emeritus professor of Old Testament, University of Gloucestershire, United Kingdom
“Few scholars even marginally knowledgeable regarding the nature of this debate could read objectively the lineup of scholars in this volume and not be impressed. Beyond the scholars’ academic credentials, the topics covered are both sophisticated and timely. For this reviewer, the experience caused me to respond time and again: ‘I want to start right there . . . or maybe there . . . wow—have to read that one first . . .’ The topic is not always an easy target, but after almost one thousand pages of critique across interdisciplinary lines, I do not think that it could be bettered. Kudos! Highly recommended.”
—Gary R. Habermas, distinguished research professor and chair, Department of Philosophy, Liberty University
“As the debate over the origins of the universe, earth, and humans continues, and Christians grapple to understand the relationship between science and Scripture, evolution and creation, the voices in this book need to be heard. Scientific data need not be in opposition to what the Bible teaches about God and his world. The big questions about life are simply beyond the reach of ‘objective’ analysis. This volume critiques theologically and philosophically the flaws of positions that marginalize God from the process.”
—James Hoffmeier, professor of Old Testament and ancient Near Eastern history and archaeology, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
“Theistic Evolution is a carefully crafted, academically sophisticated interdisciplinary challenge to the attempt to wed Christian theism to any version of the Darwinian project. I am awed by its scope and by the magnificent success of its intentions. Whether your interest is in the scientific deficiencies, the philosophical failings, or the theological dangers of Darwinism hitched to theism, look no further than this thorough analysis. Theistic Evolution is simply the most comprehensive and convincing critique of the topic I’ve ever read—a singular resource for careful thinkers—replacing a dozen books on my shelf.”
—Gregory Koukl, president, Stand to Reason; author, Tactics and The Story of Reality
“An increasing number of evangelicals are advocating theistic evolution as the best explanation of human origins, thereby denying the special creation of a historical Adam. Without taking any specific view as to the age to the earth, this important new book demonstrates that theistic evolution fails to take proper account of Genesis 1–3 as a historical narrative. Leading scholars from a variety of academic disciplines argue that theistic evolution is exegetically ill-founded, theologically damaging, scientifically implausible, and philosophically unjustifiable. Written with an irenic tone toward those it critiques, this book will help guard against false teaching in the church that undermines the gospel and will also provide apologetic help for confident evangelism in a secular world.”
—John Stevens, national director, Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches, United Kingdom
“With the ‘death of God’ and the ‘hermeneutics of suspicion’ having captured the academy decades ago, the apologetic discussion moved decisively to the nature and origin of human beings. With this volume, the editors and contributors to Theistic Evolution have given us an important and much-needed resource for the conversation currently taking place within evangelicalism. Comprehensive in its breadth, specific in its critique, and confidently nuanced in its tone, each chapter contributes to a thorough rebuttal of the idea that theistic evolution is compatible with either historic Christian faith, sound reasoning, or rigorous science. But while written by specialists, Theistic Evolution is remarkably approachable to the average reader. I highly recommend this volume to students, pastors, educators, and anyone else who cares deeply about the discussion of human origins. This is a major contribution to one of the most important debates of our time.”
—Michael Lawrence, senior pastor, Hinson Baptist Church, Portland, Oregon; author, Biblical Theology in the Life of the Church
“Under the banner of ‘theistic evolution,’ a growing number of Christians maintain that God used evolution as his method for creation. This I believe to be the worst of all possibilities. It is one thing to believe in evolution; it is quite another to blame God for it. Indeed, theistic evolution is a contradiction in terms—like the phrase “flaming snowflakes.” God can no more direct an undirected process than he can create a square circle. Yet this is precisely what theistic evolution presupposes. Modern Christians too often buy high and sell low—just as neo-Darwinian evolutionism is fighting for its very life, it is being propped up by an irrational hypothesis. Theistic Evolution is the most thorough and incisive refutation of this dangerous presupposition. I strongly recommend this volume!”
—Hank Hanegraaff, president, Christian Research Institute; host, Bible Answer Man broadcast
“This volume is the most comprehensive study on the relation between evolution and Christian faith I have discovered so far. While opening up fascinating firsthand insights into cutting-edge scientific results, at the same time the book treats the reader to a bird’s-eye view, asking the fundamental philosophical and theological questions and delving into the underlying worldview assumptions. It provides a very substantial contribution to the ever-ongoing dispute between naturalism and Christian faith in the areas of philosophy, theology, and the sciences.”
—Alexander Fink, director, Institute for Faith and Sciences, Marburg, Germany
“Essentially, theistic evolution says Charles Darwin and Richard Dawkins got the science right, but that God is still somehow involved. Putting this view into the crosshairs, this book argues convincingly that the science of evolution is in fact wrong, and that any theistic gloss one puts on it is thus doubly wrong.”
—William A. Dembski, former senior fellow, Discovery Institute; author, Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology; The Design Revolution; and Intelligent Design Uncensored
“Theistic Evolution is a major contribution to the very lively debate of exactly how to understand the ‘data’ from God’s revelation of himself in his Word with the ‘data’ from his revelation of himself in his world. Previous contributions to this debate have generally focused on the data from either science or Scripture. Theistic Evolution benefits from its comprehensive analysis from theologians, philosophers, and scientists in the same book. Whatever are your current views, Theistic Evolution will provide analysis from some of the most prominent critics in this conversation that should be helpful to people on both sides of this debate.”
—Walter Bradley, former professor of mechanical engineering, Baylor University
“The question of origins rarely fails to attract interest, not least because it is overloaded with worldview implications. For too long the increasingly shaky modern ‘Darwinian’ synthesis has been accommodated into theological thinking. This remarkable book exposes how scientifically and philosophically preposterous the notion of theistic evolution really is. An authoritative and vital contribution to the topic!”
—David J. Galloway, president, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow; honorary professor, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow
About the Author
J. P. Moreland (PhD, University of Southern California) is distinguished professor of philosophy at Biola University. He is an author of, contributor to, or editor of over ninety books, including The Soul: How We Know It's Real and Why It Matters.
Stephen Meyer (PhD, University of Cambridge) is the director of the Discovery Institute's Center of Science and Culture. He is the author of several books, including the New York Times best-selling book Darwin's Doubt.
Chris Shaw (PhD, Queen's University, Belfast) is professor of drug discovery in the school of pharmacy at Queen's University in Belfast. He is the author of hundreds of peer-reviewed papers and the cofounder of a biomarker discovery company.
Ann Gauger (PhD, University of Washington) is director of science communication and a senior fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture. She is also a senior research scientist at the Biologic Institute.
Wayne Grudem (PhD, University of Cambridge; DD, Westminster Theological Seminary) is research professor of theology and biblical studies at Phoenix Seminary, having previously taught for 20 years at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. He is a former president of the Evangelical Theological Society, a member of the Translation Oversight Committee for the English Standard Version of the Bible, the general editor of the ESV Study Bible, and has published over 20 books.
Douglas D. Axe (PhD, California Institute of Technology) is the director of Biologic Institute, a founding editor of BIO-Complexity, and the author of Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition that Life Is Designed. He is a contributor to Theistic Evolution.
C. John Collins (PhD, University of Liverpool) is professor of Old Testament at Covenant Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. He has been a research engineer, church-planter, and teacher. He was the Old Testament Chairman for the English Standard Version Bible and is author of The God of Miracles, Science and Faith: Friends or Foes?, and Genesis 1–4: A Linguistic, Literary, and Theological Commentary. He and his wife have two grown children.
John D. Currid (PhD, University of Chicago) is the Carl W. McMurray Professor of Old Testament at Reformed Theological Seminary. He is currently an adjunct faculty member at the Jerusalem Center for Biblical Studies in Jerusalem, Israel, and serves as project director of the Bethsaida Excavations Project in Israel (1995-present). He lectures and preaches worldwide.
Gregg R. Allison (PhD, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) is professor of Christian theology at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He is secretary of the Evangelical Theological Society, a book review editor for the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, an elder at Sojourn Community Church, and a theological strategist for Sojourn Network. Allison has taught at several colleges and seminaries, including Western Seminary in Portland, Oregon, and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, and is the author of numerous books, including Historical Theology: An Introduction to Christian Doctrine, Sojourners and Strangers: The Doctrine of the Church, and Roman Catholic Theology and Practice: An Evangelical Assessment.
Fred G. Zaspel (PhD, Free University of Amsterdam) serves as the pastor at Reformed Baptist Church in Franconia, Pennsylvania, an adjunct professor of systematic theology at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, and the executive director of Books At a Glance. He is the coauthor of New Covenant Theology and has published numerous booklets, articles, and book reviews.
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Theistic evolution represents an attempted compromise. The movement accepts the Darwinian or neo-Darwinian explanation and adds to it a theistic framework. It does nothing to absolve Darwinism (used here as a generalization for the movement) of its materialistic errors. Instead it accepts the conclusions of the Darwinist. Rather than being an apologetic for Christianity it acts as an apologetic for Darwinism.
In Theistic Evolution, a Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Critique, the authors provide a thorough analysis of the theistic evolution paradigm. In doing so they add to the discussion some additional arguments against Darwinism along with arguments which forward a Christian framework regarding creation. This is not another YEC package of simple answers. Neither is it an apologetic for ID. The argument is more straightforward: Theistic evolution (TE) represents an unacceptable compromise, and even a surrender.
The group of authors is a respected group of philosophers, scientists, and theologians. One may not agree with all of their individual positions. That’s a given in most any effort of this type. But none-the-less these people know their fields and they write their positions and TE critiques with clarity and without compromise.
This book is about 1,000 pages for good reason. If it were less then too much would have been lost for the sake of publishing costs. Some works require physical substance and this is one of them. The publisher is to be commended for accepting this publication challenge.
In Summary ...
The work begins with the fundamentals. Stephen Meyer provides a definition of TE and Wayne Grudem gives us the framework for the endeavor, that TE is theological incompatible with orthodox Christian theology especially with respect to creation. These provide the reader with the understanding needed to see where the rest of the work is headed.
In “Section I: The Scientific Critique of Theistic Evolution,” several problems of the neo-Darwinist paradigm are noted. These include its inability to answer the question of origins (abiogenesis) and the dysfunctional nature of the extended synthesis. One might be tempted to see this as a mere defense apologetic. Sort a "you're wrong because I found a hole in your system" approach. Many criticisms of Darwinsim end up doing that. But this is different. In this case the argument is wrapped in a greater narrative, that these positions represent defeaters for neo-Darwinsim as a model. A model which cannot accommodate the data is thus falsified. One need not have a replacement model at hand as an alternative. That's what scientists and philosophers need to work out.
Section I has a second part which deals with the question of common descent. Some of the points are subjective (the pressure to conform) while others deal with combinations of genetic and paleontological concerns. Again this discussion provides a falsifier to the model. It is not a falsifier to the evolution simpliciter (change & even speciation) but to the neo_Darwinian model.
Section II is entitled “The Philosophical Critique of Theistic Evolution” and gives the reader a picture of some paradigmatic concerns regarding Darwinism + TE. The loss of both doctrine and science, when theology inserts itself unnecessarily into discussion of naturalism. Either theology has to win the discussion or naturalism has to win. With TE the winner in the end is methodological naturalism with God just added on. This affects our view of morals and ethics. It also dissuades us from forwarding critiques of methodological naturalism + Darwinism, and that’s the core issue.
Section III might be read as the reverse of Section II. Section II spoke to the problems introduced by methodological naturalism. Section III speaks to the problems introduced by inserting TE into theological discussions. There is some overlap between them and a certain amount of semantic similarity between the arguments. Even so the point remains that the influences are present and are accounted for very well.
Sections II and III accomplish much the same thing though from alternative reference points: Falsifying the model may also include the model's foundations. Here the matter to falsify is theistic evolution itself. Because TE cannot find a proper place, and in fact a place where it is necessary, it ends up being an affectation. Metaphysical naturalism has no more a valid relationship with a sound theology than does a sound theology with metaphysical naturalism.
I've not gone into great deal on the various sections. It is after all a 1000 or so page book. I wanted to avoid writing a 10-page review. That said, this is a strong work. It is useful for both scientist and Christian teacher in the presentation of a better case for creation and critique of the failings of TE. It is, to me, a must to have in one’s Christian library.
There are three specific items that stand out to me. First, the idea of separating naturalism, both metaphysical and philosophical, from scientific inquiry is long overdue. Naturalism is in both sense a metaphysical issue, The contrary demand of so many empiricists is the rejection of metaphysical questions. In the end the most ardent empiricist must answer the metaphysical claims being made. The apologetic demand for this is clear as any apologetic for naturalism and any form of Darwinism requires a substantive answer at least equal to the Christian apologetic if it is to be of value.
There is a second strength and again it seems almost a subtext. Theories of origins are by their nature explanatory models. They seek to provide an explanation of history that sufficiently accounts for data both past and present. Neither the Darwinian nor neo-Darwinian are able to do that. The concept of randomness, even when seen as more an contingency question than a question of serendipity, sits in functional opposition to the need for directionality. The two concepts are kept separate in evolutionary literature. They are, in fact, conflicting ideas.There can be no survival for a purpose (even survival itself) while at the same time maintaining random mutation.
Four Things About Christian Apologetics:
This section is not so much about the book as it is my response to the book and some things that we apologists might give further attention to as we engage this arena. So take this as the things I want rather than as weakness in the book. The goal here is to help us advance our apologetic. The book can stand on its own with all of its strengths.
The second strength noted earlier, the model problems of neo-Darwinsim) brings up another issue. Christian apologists are now in need of a new model. We tear down but what have we built up? There are alternative models such as intelligent design. But ID depends upon Behe's irreducible complexity (IC) which itself is quasi-Darwinian. So we seem stuck. We are suggesting the rejection of Darwinism and neo-Darwinism while suggesting as a substitute something that has its roots in Darwinism. Perhaps over time this will be answered fully. But this is not a shortcoming of the book. It is a shortcoming of today's Christian apologetic regarding origins. In my opinion we are being inconsistent in our dealings regarding origins.
An additional question needs to be asked regarding thee philosophical needs of today’s scientists. Do scientists need philosophy? Or more specifically, do they need metaphysics? It’s the same question that Trigg asked in Beyond Matter: Why Science Needs Metaphysics. The answer to me is that they don’t need philosophy but rather that they need to do philosophy overtly and explicitly. We are all doing philosophy. We are always doing metaphysics. What is missing is that we do not consciously recognize what we are doing and why we are doing it. That’s the problem. It’s the reason many are ardent followers of Hawking and Sagan: They did their philosophy explicitly.
To be fair, Dr. Moreland does challenge the reader, even the scientist, with the idea that very often philosophy carries weight over apparent scientific (read “materialistic”) questions. That’s because there are no brute facts. Everything is interpreted. We are always doing philosophy. We are always doing metaphysics. We are simply not always aware of what and why we do what we do. He went half-way. I wish he would have gone further.
There is another option here. One of Dr. Moreland's better points is displaying Hawking's lack of philosophical prowess (552) where "nothing" takes on new meaning. His example might force the renaming of the chapter to "Why Scientists Need A Course in Philosophy." So many of the new atheists and others who share their opinions represent low-hanging-fruit for the Christian apologist. It's easy pickings. The apologetic for both metaphysical and philosophical naturalism would have collapses long ago if it were dependent on this type of reasoning.
There is another matter which the authors may have foreseen but it’s not part of the book, at least not explicitly. Little attention is given to the “third wave” even though the work of Shapiro is cited as a post-Darwinist influence. What happens if TE gravitates away from neo-Darwinism to one of the post- or quasi-Darwinist systems? After all, many in the third wave recognize, as does ID, that genetic information is real information rather than random, apparently complex, recursively complex (Wolfram). It is not at all inconceivable that TE would migrate to another paradigm. While the authors have made it difficult for TE on the theological side they’ve opened the door to “TE 2.0.” At that point half of this argument is not as strong as it might be. We would do well to challenge TE not only on what it is but also on what it might become.
Get the book. It is clear enough that a good teacher can summarize a good quantity of points use it effectively with high school students. It has great apologetic value and will serve you well for years to come. But one must keep in mind that the collection of information should not be used stand-alone. It is a whole work that accomplishes something significant -- identifying and analyzing TE as something to be rejected.
Most of this book is written in a scholarly manner and may be beyond the interest of many Christians. Some of the essays are answers to critiques of previous articles and books. However, Christians interested in the issues of intelligent design, special creation, or evolution would benefit from carefully reading this book.
The book is a critique of theistic evolution: that God arranged and set everything in motion so that life would evolve without additional intelligent input. The authors define theistic evolution as the sufficiency of the undirected mechanism of mutation and natural selection as an explanation for new forms of life. (59) In other words, God created matter with certain properties so that no further activity from God was required to bring about all living things. (60)
The first part of the book is an in depth critique of the creative power of natural selection and random mutation. The conclusion is that these mechanisms do not have the creative power to generate new genetic information. The authors explain how current research shows a loss of information from such mechanisms instead. This section also includes a critique of the assumption of universal common ascent. They pay particular attention to fossil and DNA evidence.
The next part of the book looks at the philosophical aspects of science and creating theories. The authors explore how one should define science and argue that science should not limit itself to strictly materialistic explanations. Rather than science correcting the Bible, perhaps Scripture should correct our scientific ideas. (707) There have been many scientific “facts” in the past that have turned out to be incorrect. It is also noted that theistic evolution fails to explain the development of moral values in humans and the spiritual nature of mankind.
The last part of the book deals with theological and biblical issues. This section is not about the age of the earth. It is about whether Genesis 1-3 should be taken as historical narrative, reporting events that actually happened. Theistic evolutionists in general say that Adam and Eve were not the first human beings, there was no fall into sin, and God did not place a curse on the world. (778) This seriously affects the truth of the gospel and the meaning of Christ's death. The conclusion is that “belief in theistic evolution is inconsistent with belief in the truthfulness of the Bible.” (776)
I have mentioned just a small part of all of the information included in this book. It is a detailed critique of theistic evolution and the works of those who promote it. I am impressed with the amount of information this book contains. It may be overwhelming for some readers. The chapters do contain summary introductions and conclusions to help readers navigate the text and decide which chapters may be of specific interest.
“ID [intelligent design] is essentially consistent with biblical doctrine, and is supported by many scientists and theologians whose views cannot be lightly dismissed,” Colin Reeves writes. (706) Unfortunately, this book does not contain a presentation of intelligent design.
I do recommend this book to Christians who have an interest in the issues of creation, evolution, and other aspects of origins. Be prepared for a good amount of time studying this topic.
Note: I received a complimentary digital ARC of this book. My comments are an independent and honest review. Some of the quotes and page numbers I give may have been changed in the final published edition of the book.
"Theistic evolution" (TE) refers to the position taken by some Christians that, while God is the creator and sustainer of the physical universe, He does not intervene in the development of life. Instead, they embrace neo-Darwinian notion that the development of living organisms is strictly a product of chance (mutations) and necessity (natural selection). Thus, TE advocates can have their cake (God) and eat it, too (unguided evolution is acceptable to materialist science).
Just started reading, though I am familiar with most of the writers and their arguments. What I've seen so far appears to make a consistent argument that TE falls between two stools, being neither fully acceptable to materialists (why bring up God at all?) nor orthodox Christians (why is God allowed to create the Universe & fine tune the laws & initial conditions, but prohibited from moving even a molecule in living organisms?)
Personally, I think most TE advocates are good Christians who sincerely wish to accommodate science with their faith. However, I suspect they will end up like the Deists before them, unable to hold on to a God that seems to have so little to do with anything since the beginning.