- Paperback: 496 pages
- Publisher: Outskirts Press; 1st edition (February 11, 2009)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 1432712160
- ISBN-13: 978-1432712167
- Product Dimensions: 9.7 x 1 x 7.4 inches
- Shipping Weight: 2 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 9 customer reviews
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #1,713,445 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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The Unified Cycle Theory: How Cycles Dominate the Structure of the Universe and Influence Life on Earth 1st Edition
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From the Author
Without a doubt, The Unified Cycle Theory publication emerges as the most authoritative book ever written about cycles. The author gathered hundreds of data series' from a variety of academic areas. The areas include star formation rates, various geological data, global temperatures (from geology, ocean sediments, and ice cores), evolutionary data, extinction data, civilization chronologies, commodity prices, stock market prices, and economic data.
The book then shows how all of these seemingly unrelated areas actually link themselves quite closely to one or more of the following four primary classifications of cycles:
1) Milankovitch Cycles - Gravitational cycles related to eccentricity, obliquity, and precession.
2) Solar Cycles - Magnetic cycles primarily consisting of frequencies of 27 days, 11 years (Schwabe cycle), 88 years (Gleissberg cycle), and 208 years (Suess cycle).
3) Geomagnetic Cycles - Primarily modulated by solar cycles; however, a semi-annual cycle, a cycle related to eclipses, and a lunar cycle also play minor roles in geomagnetic oscillations.
4) A 4th set of mysterious cycles, linked precisely by a factor of 3, dominate all areas of the universe. These cycles affect Earth and the universe throughout all timescales.
The author calls this mysterious 4th set of cycles the Extra-Universal Wave Series (EUWS). These cycles correlate with oscillations already identified by researchers in most of the major sciences. While these other researchers have done an excellent job at indentifying individual oscillations and frequencies related to their own special investigations, the book steps back to look at the big picture - across all sciences and across all timescales. In doing so, it becomes apparent that these mysterious cycles link themselves by a factor of three.
It's incredibly hard to believe that all of these naturally occurring cycles could happen by chance in such a precise manner. The book identifies and discusses 25 EUWS cycles ranging from 28.7 days to 22.2 billion years. In the Unified Cycle Theory, it's fascinating to read and learn about these 25 harmonic cycles - with all 25 conforming to three rules strictly and precisely:
1) Each parent cycle determines the characteristics of its child cycle.
2) To calculate the frequency of a child cycle, simply divide the frequency of its parent cycle by 3.
3) Each child cycle inherits cyclical turning points (peaks and troughs) from its parent - with 3 child cycles squeezed in between theoretical peaks of each parent cycle.
The book reveals many important implications about the EUWS cycles. It appears that University of Chicago extinction-cycle pioneers Raup & Sepkoski were close to being correct when they wrote the following passage back in 1984 in their groundbreaking publication, Periodicity of Extinctions in the Geologic Past - by realizing the difference between Earth's environmental symptoms and the true origin of the extinction cycles:
"If periodicity of extinctions in the geologic past can be demonstrated, the implications are broad and fundamental. A first question is whether we are seeing the effects of a purely biological phenomenon or whether periodic extinction results from recurrent events or cycles in the physical environment. If the forcing agent is in the physical environment, does this reflect an earthbound process or something in space? If the latter, are the extraterrestrial influences solar, solar system, or galactic? Although none of these alternatives can be ruled out now, we favor extraterrestrial causes for the reason that purely biological or earthbound physical cycles seem incredible, where the cycles are of fixed length and measured on a time scale of tens of millions of years. By contrast, astronomical and astrophysical cycles of this order are plausible even though candidates for the particular cycle observed in the extinction data are few."
Now, 25 years later, with strong evidence of a harmonic sequence of 25-linked cycles regulating not only extinctions, but a number of other universal events, additional deductions can be made:
a) Because of their harmonic link, reason dictates that these cycles must all share a common source. This fact alone discredits all existing theories regarding their origin. For example, a minority of researchers believe a subset of these cycles propagate from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Up until about two years ago, the author believed the same. However, these cycles were in existence before the Milky Way formed, so GCRs cannot possibly act as their source.
b) Because of the size of 22.2-gyr cycle, unless the Big Bang touched off this set of cycles (and it seems unlikely that an explosion could modulate itself), these cycles almost certainly originate from outside our known universe.
c) If that's the case, for these cycles to appear uniformly throughout our universe, these cycles must propagate at super-fast speeds - much faster than the speed of light.
d) These cycles appear to constantly create expansions (coinciding with rising temperatures) and contractions (related to declining temperatures) throughout our universe. During contractions, matter tends to clump together more than normal (hence, instead of gases being uniformly dispersed throughout our universe, we see the "clumpiness of matter" effect). These cyclic contractions and expansions act as the triggers that cause moons, planets, stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and universes to form (big crunch - big bang cycles).
e) These cycles may somehow be related to fluctuations in gravity - creating the illusions of dark matter and dark energy. (Dark matter and dark energy may really be the same thing, creating different distortions in unison with phases of these cycles.)
f) The long-term cycles suggest that our universe resides inside a much large multiverse. Our universe is simply one of many universes. A big crunch may act as a large-scale version of a supernova implosion - while also sharing some properties of a massive black hole. As a big crunch approaches singularity (probably without actually achieving singularity) near the time of a long-term cyclical trough, a big crunch reverses into a big bang.
g) These cycles also affect mankind in many ways - including modulating cycles in civilizations, economic activity, and stock market activity.
The discovery of the EUWS cycles suggests that we need to drastically rethink many basic assumptions in all of our sciences.
If you're interested in economics, sociology, psychology, markets, biology, climatology, geology, and/or astrophysics, the Unified Cycle Theory is a must-read. The 496-page publication details the properties of all four categories of cycles - including the 25 EUWS cycles.
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Top customer reviews
Much of the book is very dry and repetitive. Only towards the last half of the book does the reading get more interesting, this is where he gets into cycles less that 1000 years.
Overall a great piece to add to your analytical toolbox.
One big distraction for me after a while was the poor quality of writing. Errors included inconsistent use of punctuation, subject-verb disagreement, incomplete sentences, and many others. For example, on p. 250 appears the following text: "Through all timescales, global temperatures fluctuation in sync with EUWS cycles." Where's the verb in that? I assume it's supposed to be "have fluctuated," but it took me a couple readings to figure that out and confirm that I wasn't just reading too fast. Also, on p. 272 the author cites a study published by John Hopkins University (instead of Johns Hopkins). Problems like these are all too common in the book and gave me the impression of someone who rushed through things, and it caused me to wonder if the author's scholarship was perhaps a little slipshod. Perhaps that's just my own prejudice, but that's what I think when I come across such errors so frequently in a book. Aside from that, it annoys me when I pay so much for the book and the author doesn't have the decency to have a proofreader or copyeditor. In addition, I thought the charts and graphs were poorly constructed and placed.
The publisher, Outskirts Press, seems to be a vanity press. This also makes me wonder if the ideas hold any merit. Perhaps the author asked some respected scientists to take a look and they shot holes in his arguments. I don't know, but the fact that it was published by a vanity press is a red flag for me. I won't stop believing in cycles because of that, but it did make me wonder about the quality of scholarship.
I subscribe to a few paid and free financial newsletters, and one of them once cited Puetz right before what should have been a short-term pullback due to, I think, a full or new moon. According to Puetz, the market should have pulled back sharply, but it didn't. Again, that alone doesn't dissuade me from believing in cycles, only in the idea that cycles are predictable enough to trade.
So all in all the book is a thought-provoking read but poorly organized and poorly (or not at all) copyedited. Worth reading, but if quality of writing is a concern, be prepared for lots of typos, inconsistencies, outright mistakes, etc.
Finally, the reviewer who took from the book solace that it provides evidence of a superior intelligence who has our best interests in mind is, in my opinion, projecting his own beliefs into the text. I read that review before reading the book and was on the lookout for any reference to a divine intelligence or presence in the universe overseeing all these cycles but found none. One could just as easily come away from the book believing that Puetz provided even stronger evidence than Stephen Hawking that the universe had no need or room for God/god/gods as an explanatory principle. As another reviewer noted, the fact that these cycles continue without regard for human desires, argues against that. Thankfully, though, Puetz simply doesn't even wander into that territory; you don't know what his religious/spiritual beliefs are.
For the "unification" whereof he speaks, Puetz simply takes the number 22.176 billion years and divides it by 3, getting 7.392 billion years, and then divides the result again by 3 to get 2.464 billion years, and so on. At first, I was quite skeptical, thinking that all this was mere numerology. That was until Puetz used the calculation to show that all of the geologic epochs fell right into this cyclic behavior. My favorite, because I have worked with Quaternary geology for decades, is the 41,728-year EUWS cycle. The data for the eastern equatorial Pacific sea temperature for the last million years shows remarkable agreement with that cycle (Chart 22C). The precision surpasses that of the 41,000-year cycle observed long ago by Milankovitch (1941) as well as the more recent correction to 42,000 years, attributed to cyclic variations in the axial tilt of the earth. Of course, in nearly all cycle theories, various subcycles can exhibit constructive and destructive interference. This results in extra peaks or diminished peaks that at first appear to be random variations within the major intercyclic periods. As in all of science, real data generally give skeptics plenty of chance for doubt. Puetz handles part of this intercyclic noise with something called the Turning Point Distribution Principle: "This principle describes how the EUWS cycles reverse direction at tops and bottoms. Variations from theoretical turning points distribute themselves in a non-random manner. ...If a EUWS cycle misses its theoretical turning point, alternatives include theoretical turning points of its sub-cycles. This tendency produces non-random, stair-step distributions" (p. 5). Being a neomechanist, I can appreciate this fully. The ideal cyclic motion of a simple pendulum, for instance, is either forward or back. To get subcycles, there would have to be additional causes (other bodies impacting the pendulum).
Puetz goes on to calculate 13,909-year, 4,636-year, 1,545-year, 515-year, 172-year, 57-year, 19-year, 6.36-year, and 2.12-year cycles. There even are 258.11-day, 86.04-day, and 26.68-day cycles, all of which he supports with data drawn from the literature, including the stock market. Given his focus, there probably is some cherry picking involved, but too many of the peaks and troughs are precisely as predicted by the calculation. I haven't checked all the charts for accuracy, but the references for the raw data are meticulously included, with many readily available on the Internet. You can judge for yourself. Reconstructed temperature variations for Greenland appear to be remarkably in agreement with the 1,545-year cycle (p. 281). He shows the correlation between sunspot and climate cycles with the rise and fall of various civilizations. And most pertinent to our present situation, he shows that the 57-year EUWS cycle coincides with the highly controversial Kondratieff Wave cycle in economics. The 57-year cycle postdicts four market crashes in a row: 1720, 1778, 1835, and 1892. He calculates that the possibility of this happening by chance is 1 in 10 million (1/57 X 1/57 X 1/57 X 1/57). The 1929 market crash came one 19-year panic cycle early. Most surprising: Both the 57-year and 172-year cycles predicted a major depression to begin in 2007. Sound familiar? He also points out that "Since 1934, the Dow Jones Industrial Average correlated with the 2.12-year EUWS frequency for 34 cycles." If you think there is profit potential in all this, you can get Puetz's financial newsletter [...], which at the moment, is more bearish than anything else I have seen.
The book goes into some interesting esoteric detail: Who knew that the price of rice in China pretty much followed the 172-year cycle ever since 976 AD? Who knew that the rise and fall of civilizations followed a 515-year EUWS cycle? One needs to appreciate a lot of data in chart form and bear with quite a bit of necessary repetition. Some of the conclusions will be a stretch for sociologists, historians, and others more knowledgeable about the details, but the shear extent of this first attempt is outstanding.
Puetz's data doesn't shrink from controversy. Not only does he see 2007 as the beginning of another Great Depression, he also points out it's coincidence with the sudden drop in global temperatures that occurred in January of that year (Chart 28K). Note that the figure shows a general rise in global temperatures at the beginning of the 20th century, similar to the 2-mm/yr rise in sea level that I pointed out previously (Borchardt, 2009). Next questions: Will sea level begin to drop along with global temperatures? Will the so-called "great recession" become the "Global Depression" that Puetz predicts? There is no doubt that Puetz is on to something really big here. But what is it?
Without a mechanism, all these data are still looking for a home. One disingenuous reviewer covers the indeterministic view: "This new concept shows that someone or something with extreme intelligence and wisdom is in control of us. ...someone out there, who has our best interest at heart, is in absolute control of everything" (Ott, 2009). Egads! That fellow must have slept through the part about cycles that might leave us freezing in the dark. It seems clear that the EUWS cycles are associated with changes in climate. Puetz shows, however, that the conventionally accepted 11-year sunspot cycle and the Milankovitch cycles are not sufficient to produce many of the effects he draws attention to. It certainly wouldn't account for "Snowball Earth," the time about 700 million years ago (p. 178) when most of the planet was covered with ice. One can see increases in crop yields, surpluses, and price declines as the effects of increases in global warmth, but two-year fluctuations in the stock market with special emphasis on the full moon? Nonetheless, that is just what the data show. This definitely is a "unified" theory, but it is missing a central character, perhaps some supermicrocosm that acts as an "Extra-Universal" cause.
Why the number 22.176 billion and the divisor 3? The whole book is just begging for a formal mathematical solution. That's the obvious next challenge for Puetz to complete the theory and silence the inevitable critics. To sum up, this book is a must read for anyone who wants to understand the universe from a univironmental point of view. A magnificent compilation and a towering achievement!
Borchardt, Glenn, 2009, Global warming 2 millimeters at a time, [...]
CRU, 2008, Climate Research Unit, Data: Temperature[...]: University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Lawrence, K.T., 2006, Eastern equatorial Pacific 5 Myr Alkenone SST and paleoproductivity reconstruction: Boulder, CO, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology. Data Contribution Series #2006-044. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program.
Milankovitch, Milutin, 1941 , Canon of insolation and the ice-age problem: Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, v. 132.
Ott, Donald, 2009, You will want to keep this book! [...]
Puetz, S.J., 2009, The unified cycle theory: How cycles dominate the structure of the universe and influence life on earth: Denver, [...], 489 p.
The book, in its entirety is a treasure, as is Mr. Puetz's other book, Universal Cycle Theory. Read them until you understand them.