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What Makes a Terrorist: Economics and the Roots of Terrorism Paperback – September 22, 2008
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"Full of first-rate empirical work."--Tyler Cowen, Marginal Revolution
"Economist Alan Krueger explores this phenomenon with a systematic study of the evidence. . . . All in all, the research that Krueger gathers together suggests that if there is a link between poverty, education and terrorism, it is the opposite of the one popularly assumed."--Tim Harford, Financial Times
"An invaluable little book. . . . [U]ses standard tools of economics and statistical analysis to get at the truth about terrorism."--Daniel Finkelstein, Times (London)
"In a compelling analysis, Krueger points out how a lack of legitimate political expression and civil liberties turns some individuals to terrorism. He also provides a pointed and witty account of the problems the U.S. administration has faced in its own attempts at empiricism. . . . This book is a model of how academics can contribute to major public policy debates."--Lawrence D. Freedman, Foreign Affairs
"What are the individual and societal causes of terrorism? The book's great strength is its focus on new sources of data examined in new ways. The most compelling analysis in the book is of biographical information on operatives from Hezbollah and Hamas. This is a substantial contribution, offering insight into who becomes a terrorist and, as important, pushing terrorism studies in a productive new direction, toward microlevel data. The book provides a valuable service in dispelling the stereotype of the poor, ignorant terrorist."--Ethan Bueno de Mesquita, Science
"It seems universally obvious that poverty and poor education breed terrorism. But it's wrong.... [Alan Krueger] went in search of evidence for the terrorism part of the proposition and found next to none. He has set out his findings in What Makes A Terrorist."--Peter Martin, Canberra Times
"This new book by Alan Krueger, full of first-rate empirical work, punctures many myths about terrorism."--Tyler Cowen, Marginal Revolution
"[Krueger] seeks to put the risks Americans face from terrorism into 'proper perspective' with his unique book."--John McCaslin, Washington Times
"What Makes a Terrorist brings together disparate data, such as academic studies and government reports, arraying them into a concise, accessible argument against the notion that we can defeat terrorism through aid and education. While Krueger is careful to affirm that these are useful in combating many social ills, he is adamant that terrorism is not one of them. He offers skilled analysis to show that an aggressive foreign policy based on this fallacious assumption has cost several nations dearly and also warns that continuing along this course may provoke further terrorist acts."--Tony Azios, Christian Science Monitor
"Using raw data from government, academic, and think-tank sources and citing the work of other economists on poverty, race, terrorism, and hate crimes, Krueger explains in clear and accessible prose that the average terrorist suspect is highly educated, professionally employed, from a middle- or higher-class background, and, most important, from a country that suppresses civil liberties...Avoiding jargon whenever possible and defining it when unavoidable, Krueger excels in making his difficult subject easy to grasp without reducing its inherent complexity. The occasional pop culture reference (e.g., to the Daily Show) adds to the appeal. Highly recommended for both academic and public collections."--April Younglove, Library Journal (starred review)
"What makes a terrorist? Are the drivers primarily political or economic? Princeton economist Alan Krueger has made a great study of this question...What Makes a Terrorist lacks a question mark. That's because Krueger, marshaling persuasive statistics and analysis, comes down firmly on the side of politics, noting most terrorists are middle-class and well-educated."--Thomas P.M. Barnett, Knoxville News Sentinel
"Economist Alan Krueger explores this phenomenon with a systematic study of the evidence.... All in all, the research that Krueger gathers together suggests that if there is a link between poverty, education and terrorism, it is the opposite of the one popularly assumed."--Tim Harford, Financial Times
"[Krueger] analyzed data from NCTC and elsewhere, and came up with often counter-intuitive findings...Krueger's book collects comprehensive evidence."--Zack Phillips, Government Executive
"An invaluable little book.... What Makes a Terrorist uses standard tools of economics and statistical analysis to get at the truth about terrorism.... Krueger finds one familiar fact in all his numbers. Countries with fewer civil liberties tend to produce more terrorists."--Daniel Finkelstein, Times (London)
"Krueger's book is a necessary read for anyone who wishes to understand terrorism, especially because many of the popular notions of what causes it are not rooted in reality. One wishes that politicians, especially, would pay attention."--Amit Varma, Live Mint
"[Krueger] in his groundbreaking new book, What Makes a Terrorist, enlists the 'dismal science' to tackle the despicable one. Provocative, dispassionate and accessible, Krueger's book is a breath of fresh air in the stifling climate of empty speculation that dominates the terror dialogue in post-9/11 America."--Ryan Hagen, Brooklyn Rail
"As a noted scholar and former chief economist for the U.S. Department of Labor, Krueger is well qualified to perform the types of sophisticated statistical analyses presented here. Despite his weighty academic credentials . . . his book is happily succinct and eminently readable. What Makes a Terrorist is a quick and pleasurable read while remaining highly informative."--Major Jason Ridgeway, Military Review
"[R]ead Krueger's book and understand that if terrorism has identifiable root causes, they're the ones most frequently cited by Islamists themselves--the desire to achieve what terrorists see as holy ends, and the conviction that, in the service of these ends, terrorism works."--Walter Reich, Wilson Quarterly
"The author of this important new book, Alan Krueger . . . offers very compelling economic insight into the phenomenon of terrorism. . . . Kreuger's method of presenting and analyzing data from the field, as well as the open and broad way in which he relates to the topic, heightens the relevance of the information he presents. His book deepens our understanding of terror and makes the issue accessible to a broad readership. Indeed, this work could and should be used as an aid to policy makers who are charged with providing an appropriate response to the Herculean challenge of the war on terror."--Anat Berko, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs
"In What Makes a Terrorist Krueger uses his experience and skill in collecting and analyzing data quantitatively and empirically, making much of what others have done look like arm-chair speculation."--Ziv Hellman, The Jerusalem Report
"A timely wake-up call for policy-makers and students of terrorism alike."--Commonwealth Lawyer
"This short, well-crafted book should be read by anyone interested in the causes and consequences of terrorism."--Helge Holtermann, Journal of Peace Research
"Alan Krueger is to be commended for taking his undoubted skills and economic techniques and applying them to an analysis of terrorism. He brings some useful insights and new information to the topic."--James M. Lutz, European Legacy
"What Makes a Terrorist brings needed clarity to one of the greatest challenges of our time."--World Book Industry
From the Back Cover
"In this beautifully written book, one of the world's most respected economists tackles the question of terrorism. Krueger's work represents the most careful data-driven research ever done in this area. This is a book that a lay audience will read and enjoy, but with a rigor and depth that will inform the experts in the field. This is timely and important work which should play a critical role in shaping our public policies on terrorism."--Steven D. Levitt, coauthor of Freakonomics
"This is a very important book. Krueger proves--with facts, figures, and interviews--that terrorists are not desperately poor killers but well-educated politicians using violence to draw attention to their 'market'--violent change. The way you beat them--as we did in Peru--is not with bigger guns but with better ideas and legal reforms that win over their largest constituency, the poor."--Hernando de Soto, author of The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else
"Professor Krueger's well-researched analysis is exactly the kind of resource the country needs in order to make wise decisions in the war on terror. His extensive data and insightful commentary go to the heart of the causes and consequences of terrorism, with often startling conclusions. A fascinating tour de force, this book will assist scholars and policymakers alike."--Raphael Perl, senior terrorism policy analyst, Congressional Research Service
"This is a book that even George Bush could understand. The United States would be more effective in combating terrorism if the president and his advisors embraced Alan Krueger's fine work. When the history of the 'war on terror' is written, Krueger will be one of the few cited for having taken the time to wrestle with facts and data rather than pander to racist prejudice and fear mongering."--Larry Johnson, CEO of BERG Associates and former CIA counterterrorism official
"These three lectures on terrorism are, despite the gruesomeness of the topic, a delight to read. Who else but Krueger could juxtapose negative binomial regressions and cuts from Comedy Central in a natural way? This book provides clear state-of-the-art answers to fundamental questions about terrorism in a manner that is broadly accessible."--David Laitin, Stanford University
Top Customer Reviews
Krueger demonstrates that poor economic conditions does not cause terrorism. He dismantles this theory by stating that half of the World's population lives on less than $2 a day. If poverty caused terrorism, we'd be overwhelmed by terrorists.
Much of Krueger's findings are counterintuitive. In some cases they are supported by robust statistical analysis (negative binomial regression). His regression models allow him to occasionally differentiate what directional role various socio economic and demographic variables play in relation to terrorism.
Within the book, Krueger expands on three lectures he gave in England and turns them into three long chapters on the subject. The first chapter addresses who becomes a terrorist. The second chapter covers where does terror emerge? And, the third one covers what does terrorism accomplish?Read more ›
Krueger opens by demolishing a myth that should have died a long time ago - that terrorism is caused by economic depravity. It turns out that there is no statistical correlation between either poverty or lack of education and terrorism. Krueger points out that we tend to analogize terrorism to property crime, of which the poor are guiltier then the rich. But that is the wrong view - terrorism should be seen as the equivalent of voting - an activity carried out by the educated and well informed, not by the hungry and rather apolitical masses.
In the second chapter, Krueger explores other issues relating to terrorism. His main conclusion is that terrorism is mostly a local issue: long range attacks such as 9/11 and 7/7 are the exception rather than the rule. Terrorism often works across religious lines: the targets of terrorist attacks are overwhelmingly members of another religion. But the particular religion doesn't matter: Islamic terrorists are no more widespread then other terrorists. Perhaps most significantly, Krueger finds that terrorists usually come from countries with poor civil and political liberties.
The final lecture deals with the consequences of terrorism. Krueger presents two views of terror's economic effects: That it has a big, lasting effect, or that it is only a temporary thing.Read more ›
He documents well several counter-intuitive findings: 1)terrorism is a tactic to get attention, not the "enemy", 2)terrorism is not caused by poverty or lack of education, 3)terrorists are not motivated by their own material gain, 4)terrorism does not much affect an overall economy,5)terrorists are young and male, 6) 95%of attacks are not suicide attacks and are by multiple perpetrators in their own country.
If I follow Krueger's arguments, I might suggest these nostrums to curb terrorism: 1)free up civil and political liberties so the gripers have a non-violent outlet, 2)restrict sensational media reporting to deny terrorists the attention they crave, 3)monitor small dissident groups, 4)heighten security in the morning hours(when most attacks occur), 5)tighten further the availability of weapons of mass destruction.
My research on global megatrends suggests there is a much more encompassing and ominous trend taking place. Terrorists are but minor players. Starting in the 20th century and accelerating into this century, "civilized" people began to accept that it was OK to kill non-combatants. The Nazi bombing raids on London and the holocaust are examples. More sensitive examples are the Allied carpet bombings of Germany or the fire-bombings of Japanese cities. Or the mass killings of non-combatants at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. "Civilized" people as well as terrorist losers maintain these killings are OK because they get the job done of getting attention and striking terror and making a statement. These killings are supposedly OK because they assist the progress of some aggressive religion or "ism", which includes fascism and communism but also democracy. Are the terrorist losers just mimicking their big brothers?
Most Recent Customer Reviews
Our globally-besieged world we know and live in today has become more than a troubled-prone environment. Read morePublished 1 month ago by Arrington
Professor Krueger crunches some numbers about the terrorism. He confirms old truths and uncovers new ones. Read morePublished 5 months ago by Abaldess
The title should really be--as Krueger admits in the book--What Doesn't Make a Terrorist. This quibble notwithstanding, it is a book well worth reading. Read morePublished on January 24, 2012 by J. Davis
Forgive me for the title of this review, but just as Levitt and Dubner used economic methods (well... Read morePublished on December 29, 2011 by G.X. Larson
if you are interested in terrorism, you will enjoy this book. Factual and will remember reading this book long after. I highly recommend it.Published on October 9, 2011 by tennischamp
This book has some insights but it is clearly written for other economists. If you do not understand economics well, you will only understand half of this book. Read morePublished on April 1, 2009 by Christopher Haynes
This book is based on a series of 3 lectures that take a deep look at the roots and causes of terrorism. Read morePublished on January 9, 2008 by Zack Oliver