There's always been a debate about when the rough, more animalistic Neanderthals died out, and the abrupt jump to Modern Man occurred. The dividing line has been 30,000 years ago, when the Neanderthals died out and Modern Man took over.
Most of ancient cave art has "naturally" been assigned to the smarter Modern Man. But now a new dating method (refined uranium-thorium) says that those theories are wrong. Modern Man (homo sapiens) were living in Italy possibly as far back as 45,000 years ago.
(NOTE: Some UFO/ET literature says that when an ET war threw Mars out of alignment, so it became unliveable, the Martian humanoids were brought to Earth and settled around the Meditteranean, where the warm and mild climate was most appealing to them.)
And the oldest cave art, consisting of red discs (memories of Mars?), handprints, clubs and geometric symbols from 40,000 years ago, may be attributed to Neanderthals. There is also "new genetic evidence of modern human-Neanderthal interbreeding, suggesting a closer relationship than had been generally thought."
In addition, there have been human footprints discovered in petrified ash in Mexico, dated to at least 40,000 years ago. The find is controversial, since it would establish the oldest proof of homo sapiens in the Americas.
Some alternative timelines have dated hominid (proto-human) remains to one million BC. Advanced hand tools dated to 900,000 BC were found in Spain, and hominid remains to 800,000 years ago, were also found in Spain.