"Why are Britain's military branches called the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines, the Royal Air Force, but the army is called the British Army?"
In the so-called "Great Civil War," between the King of England and Parliament, Parliament won and, in 1649, King Charles I was hanged. Eleven years later when the monarchy was restored in the person of his son, King Charles II, the new king agreed to accept Parliament having the powers delineated in the Declaration of Breda. However, the trust level remained low between the parties, and various parts of the military "took sides", as it were, in whether they supported Charles II being "the guy". The navy openly supported Charles II, but large parts of the army did not, as it was largely a Parliamentary creation instrumental in the removal of Charles I to begin with, and then strengthened during the ensuing eleven years by Oliver Cromwell. So when Charles II was put on the throne, he proclaimed that because of its support for him, the navy would henceforth be called the "Royal Navy." Regarding the army, he said nothing, so it remained what it was. Subsequent branches have been given the "royal" designation since, but it has become a tradition not to attach that label to the army.
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