In the spirit of being excruciatingly picky (I'm an MSEE, amongst other things) you could certainly build a computer using just NAND gates, but it isn't true that "Modern computers are made of NOR or NAND gates." There are other gates, and other components besides gates. This is way, way too pedantic, I know, but what the heck...
A system is "effectively non-deterministic" if its complexity is such that its algorithmic complexity is such that the simplest description of the system is the very same system. In other words, any model you tried to create would be at least as complex as the system you were trying to simulate, such that the simulation would have it's own behavior, and diverge from the original system. Such a system's outpout can't be predicted, because any simulation or model would have its own behavior, rather than echo that of the system being simulated.
This is all part of a fairly new, and very complex way of looking at information and complexity. Google "Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity" for more... and I've barely dipped my big toe into those very deep waters, so don't take my word for any of this.
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