Fanon describes the character of (European) colonialists, the colonised Africans (the "masses" - rural and urban, the elites, the nationalists, the tribalists) wonderfully. The book is wonderfully written - Fanon must have been a good writer.
Fanon is a psychiatrist, and worked in Algeria as psychiatrist, but he many have travelled other African countries too. His book shows his deep knowledge of both African and European sociology, psychology and politics. The book is still relevant; his analysis as to what will happen after the liberation of African countries is amazingly valid. He is in a way one of the most important African (though he is born in Latin America) sociologist and political scientist.
Fanon's book starts on "violence", he doesn't shy away from prescribing violence in the struggle for liberation. Some find Fanon advocating violence, but that is not the case. He puts in perspective the violence perpetrated by colonists against the resulting reaction that culminates in the violence of the colonised. His clear analysis demystifies the violence that still grips Africa.
Unfortunately Fanon seems to put all European in Africa as colonists. Many cases from South Africa show that that should not be the case. But his views may be due to the brutal repression he has to witness and experience in Algeria by the French government and French citizens there.
Frantz Fanon was an unparralled political critic. The Wretched of the Earth is essential even today to understand how our world works and how the west attempts to dominated the darker peoples of the Earth and our best ways to combat it.
Fanon among all freedom fighters I know of provided an anthropology of racism--religious resisters like Bonhoeffer had of course their own--but Fanon--even if his anthropology proves wrong--only history can say did a remarkable thing--he esplained oppression in terms of the human person not just economics (which certainly is a reasonable thing to do) but he went firther--this is a very great book--i would take out sartre's preface--he was a coward possibly worse i am trying to work that up