This book provides a comprehensive sociological overview of adult and continuing education. It draws on all branches of sociology rather than advocating one approach. It examines the theories of all the significant sociological writers in the field such as Knowles, Marx, Freire and Gramsci and sets them in the broader intellectual context. It also considers the content of the curriculum in adult education and the place of adult education in society at large. The author indicates the strengths and weaknesses of the different sociological perspectives and demonstrates how they can be used to analyse the function and purpose of adult and continuing education.
The Brighton Conference in 1975 was devoted to an examination of some of the problems arising from the re-organisation of teacher education in a period of economic stringency and widespread cuts in education. The book is divided into four sections. The first considers the structural changes resulting from mergers and changing institutional roles. The second considers the changing curriculum; the third consists of discussion papers by three principals of colleges of higher education and the fourth section summarises discussions and seeks to identify some future trends in teacher education.
This study illuminates how the everyday activity of teachers raises profound economic, cultural, ethical, political and research issues, and provides a new and fruitful way of examining the practice of teaching. The first part of the book offers a detailed description of sensitively recorded school situations, arising from work carried out in a number of British primary schools. From the analysis of their research the authors constructed a theoretical perspective for looking at schooling in the form of sixteen ‘dilemmas’; the second half of the book is concerned with this perspective, and shows how the dilemmas constitute a language for looking at everyday schooling and relating it to more general political, social and cultural issues. The book thus spans the gap in educational thinking between work with a firm empirical base and specifically theoretical studies.
Beginning with descriptions of the ways in which children make sense of their experience and the world, such as fantasy, stories and games, Egan constructs his argument that constituting this foundational layer are sets of cultural sense-making capacities, reflected in oral cultures throughout the world. Egan sees education as the acquisition of these sets of sense-making capacities, available in our culture, and his goal is to conceptualize primary education in a way that over comes the dichotomy between progressivisim and traditionalism, attending both the needs of the individual child and the accumulation of knowledge.
The rapid expansion of higher education provision, particularly in Europe and North America during the 1960s opened up for the first time the question whether everyone should have the opportunity to experience the benefits of higher university and other institutions. The contributors are economists, sociologists and politicians and all have different assumptions, commitments and postures.
This book is a logical progression from The Sociology of Adult and Continuing Education. The author takes a completely new approach to the subject and puts forward a model of adult learning which is analysed in depth. This model arises from the results of a research project in which adults analysed their own learning experiences.
This book examines the experience and politics of teachers’ work, questions of teacher appraisal, and the struggles of the teachers’ action of 1984-86. A major section of the book charts the changing power relations between organized teachers and the State in Britain from 1900 to the late 1980s. The contributors to this volume write from a variety of perspectives, including conflict theory, socio-historical analysis, feminist analysis, diary-based ethnography, and interview-based research. With its sensitivity to this range of perspectives and its bringing together of the experimental aspects of teaching, as well as its class, gender and political relations, this book is an authoritative source for courses in education, sociology, history and social policy.
Gerald Grace here explores the concept of role conflict and the current theorizing about the problems of the teacher’s role. He investigates four potential problem areas – role diffuseness, role vulnerability, role commitment versus career orientation, and value conflict – in a sample of one hundred and fifty secondary school teachers in a Midland town. The analysis shows how a teacher’s commitment to a particular set of values exposes him or her to conflict in an achievement-oriented and pluralistic society. These conflicts, present in all schools, are seen in their clearest form among secondary modern school teachers. The author suggests that colleges of education, in emphasizing commitment and in assuming value consensus, predispose their students to conflict experiences. He indicates that internal career possibilities in schools and the influence of graduate or certified status are also important factors in conflict exposure. While accepting that certain role conflicts are important in the genesis of change, the author proposes that levels of dysfunctional conflict can be reduced by the action of head teachers, by structural change in the schools and innovations in teaching education.
Many schools in developed countries have children and adolescents from a variety of ethnic, linguistic, religious and cultural backgrounds. They relate to each other in various degrees of encounter that range from harmony to hostility. The issue of how a school can foster inter-ethnic relationships and challenge the manifestations of bad relationships cannot of course be divorced from tensions and inequalities in the wider society. This book focuses on ways in which schools might make a difference to the quality of such relationships within their walls. It has sought to do this by studying nine secondary schools in some depth: their organisation, structures and interactive processes: and the experiences, attitudes and behaviour of students and their teachers. The research on which the book is based has also yielded data on the influence of policy and procedure in schools on relationships.
This book discusses the kind of imaginative thinking which is going on all the time without producing the masterpieces of art and culture. The author brings together the body of educational theory, psychological theory and some general opinions about imagination, to provide an account of everyday imagining for educationalists, psychologists, teachers and parents.
This book maps out a new paradigm of teacher education and, by implication, professional education generally. The book opens with two alternative theories of teacher education and training and explains the concepts and assumptions on which they rest including beliefs about the nature and role of education in society. It then proposes a ‘natural science’ paradigm and its implications for establishing a coherent view of teacher education. Subsequent chapters indicate the professional implications of such a model.
In facing the question ‘who runs the universities’, the authors have carried out over a period of years an extensive programme of interviews, both formal and informal, as well as a detailed study of documents. Their findings are written up in the language of politics – in terms of power, authority, influence, regulation and decision making. The result is thus of value both to those with a practical interest in universities and to those with a more theoretical interest in politics or organisational behaviour.
In this introductory text the authors look closely at widely held assumptions about ‘race’ and schooling in Britain, and evaluate the role of the school in a multi-ethnic society. Focusing on contemporary issues and concerns, they consider such controversial questions as: Is the education system rigged against black pupils? Is ‘tolerance’ really a characteristic of the British? The volume provides a detailed analysis of the Education Reform Act (1988) and the debate surrounding the National Curriculum, and asks whether these new initiatives do truly open the doors of opportunity for all children.
This book opens with a survey of the historical evolution of adult education in the UK and leads on to the study of the structure of adult learning. It discusses distance teaching opportunities such as the Open University and the National Extension College, and face-to-face teaching provision in adult education centres. It also looks at specific programmes such as the Adult Literacy Initiative in the mid-1970s, and at target groups like the adult unemployed, women and ethnic groups. Comprehensive and yet broad-ranging, this volume contains much new material that offers interesting insights into both present and future opportunities for adult education.
Although the different contributions to this book range over a wide spectrum of substantive issues, they share a common interest. This is a concern to explore the ways in which notions of the relations between theory and practice, between belief and action, can be used to develop three kinds of sensitivity in the sociology of education. A sensitivity towards how school systems are created, maintained and made to function; towards developing a more refined, critical and constructive awareness of the reliability and validity of descriptions, analyses and explanations offered in this field of study; and a sensitivity towards the ways in which changes take place within the education system and how the insights and realisations generated in the discipline might be used to control such occurrences.
The education system should be in the forefront of the battle to combat racial inequality. The contributors to this book, however, argue that, far from reducing racial inequality, the education system in the UK systematically generates, maintains and reproduces it. Through careful consideration of the complex and pervasive nature of racism (and the practices it gives rise to) the contributors draw attention to the failure of the contemporaneous multicultural education theories and policies. The contributors’ concerns are with: the role of the state in sustaining and legitimating racial inequalities in education; black students’ experiences of racism in schools and post-school training schemes; and proposals for the realization of genuine and effective antiracist education principles.
The educational implications of cultural pluralism attracted a good deal of attention in Western societies in the 1970s and 1980s, on the grounds of equality and human rights, maximising national talent, and maintaining social cohesion. Maurice Craft and the international contributors to this book highlight the potential of teacher education, and in this wide-ranging analytical review for its key role in providing for ethnic minority children, in respect of access and achievements, and also for all children to acquire informed and tolerant attitudes.
This book makes an important contribution to a small but growing literature, concentrating on initial rather than in-service teacher education, and it brings together papers from experienced specialists from eleven countries worldwide: Australia, Britain, Canada, Israel, Malaysia, Northern Ireland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the USA. The papers are concerned with the needs both of diverse classrooms and diverse societies, and also consider general principles and comparative perspectives.
Of interest to the specialist and non-specialist alike, Teacher Education in Plural Societies: An International Review deals with an important and timely issue – how best to prepare teachers to meet the needs of both minority – and majority – culture pupils who are growing up in plural societies.
Originally written at a time of crisis in the education system of Britain – occasioned by cuts, contradictions and change - many of the issues discussed in this book are still relevant today. Debate in the book focuses upon an examination of the nature of the crisis, an exploration of the impact of the crisis upon school processes and upon the relationship between life in school and in the wider community, an investigation of the responses being made by pupils, teachers and educationalists to the day-to-day manifestations of the crisis and a consideration of how the current crisis is giving a particular poignancy to issues to do with the theories and methods employed in our study and interpretation of contemporary educational processes.
This volume considers how various sociological approaches to the exploration of the conditions of teachers’ might be co-ordinated so as to produce a more penetrating and reliable understanding of the main dimensions of teachers’ work. Three dimensions are selected for special attention: historical, institutional and interactional contexts in which teachers operate. In different way the papers in this collection explore the contribution such an investigation of these contexts can make to our understanding of wider educational concerns.
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